Glutamate receptors are the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the mammalian brain and are activated in a variety of normal neurophysiologic processes. This gene product belongs to a family of glutamate receptors that are sensitive to alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA), and function as ligand-activated cation channels. These channels ... See more...

Aliases for GRIA2 Gene

Aliases for GRIA2 Gene

  • Glutamate Ionotropic Receptor AMPA Type Subunit 2 2 3 5
  • Glutamate Receptor, Ionotropic, AMPA 2 2 3
  • AMPA-Selective Glutamate Receptor 2 3 4
  • Glutamate Receptor 2 3 4
  • GluR-K2 3 4
  • GluR-2 3 4
  • GluR-B 3 4
  • GLUR2 3 4
  • GluA2 3 4
  • Glutamate Receptor Ionotropic, AMPA 2 4
  • Glutamate Receptor B Flip Isoform 3
  • GLURB 3
  • HBGR2 3

External Ids for GRIA2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GRIA2 Gene

  • GLUR2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GRIA2 Gene

  • GC04P159021
  • GC04P158572
  • GC04P158719
  • GC04P158499
  • GC04P158361
  • GC04P158141
  • GC04P153892

Summaries for GRIA2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GRIA2 Gene

  • Glutamate receptors are the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the mammalian brain and are activated in a variety of normal neurophysiologic processes. This gene product belongs to a family of glutamate receptors that are sensitive to alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA), and function as ligand-activated cation channels. These channels are assembled from 4 related subunits, GRIA1-4. The subunit encoded by this gene (GRIA2) is subject to RNA editing (CAG->CGG; Q->R) within the second transmembrane domain, which is thought to render the channel impermeable to Ca(2+). Human and animal studies suggest that pre-mRNA editing is essential for brain function, and defective GRIA2 RNA editing at the Q/R site may be relevant to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) etiology. Alternative splicing, resulting in transcript variants encoding different isoforms, (including the flip and flop isoforms that vary in their signal transduction properties), has been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GRIA2 Gene

GRIA2 (Glutamate Ionotropic Receptor AMPA Type Subunit 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GRIA2 include Status Epilepticus and Depression. Among its related pathways are Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Circadian entrainment. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include ionotropic glutamate receptor activity and AMPA glutamate receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GRIA4.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for GRIA2 Gene

  • Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inactive state, characterized by the presence of bound agonist. In the presence of CACNG4 or CACNG7 or CACNG8, shows resensitization which is characterized by a delayed accumulation of current flux upon continued application of glutamate. Through complex formation with NSG1, GRIP1 and STX12 controls the intracellular fate of AMPAR and the endosomal sorting of the GRIA2 subunit toward recycling and membrane targeting (By similarity).

Tocris Summary for GRIA2 Gene

  • AMPA receptors are members of the ionotropic class of glutamate receptors, which also includes NMDA and kainate receptors. AMPA receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission and play a role in hippocampal synaptic long-term potentiation and depression.

Gene Wiki entry for GRIA2 Gene

Additional gene information for GRIA2 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for GRIA2 Gene

Genomics for GRIA2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GRIA2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GRIA2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH04J157222 Promoter/Enhancer 1.8 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 500.4 +18.5 18518 5 EP300 REST ZBTB26 ZBTB25 TGIF2 ZEB1 HDAC2 CTBP1 MXI1 ZSCAN9 GRIA2 RNU6-582P LOC391707 lnc-PDGFC-2 HSALNG0038115
GH04J156597 Enhancer 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 10.3 -606.7 -606682 3.4 FOS NR2F2 FOXP2 CTCF RXRA BHLHE40 ESR1 TCF7L2 SRF RAD21 ENSG00000249479 LINC02272 RNU6-582P GRIA2 LOC391707 piR-32559-330 ENSG00000251511
GH04J157265 Enhancer 0.5 FANTOM5 Ensembl 11 +61.3 61301 0.6 USF1 MYC HSALNG0038115 GRIA2 LOC391707 RNU6-582P GLRB PDGFC lnc-PDGFC-2
GH04J156790 Enhancer 0.6 Ensembl 9.2 -412.2 -412181 3.6 TEAD1 FOXA2 KDM1A TEAD3 ARID3A SOX5 MIXL1 KAT8 ASH2L ETV5 ENSG00000248629 RNU6-582P GRIA2 LOC391707 lnc-GLRB-9 lnc-CTSO-2 PDGFC
GH04J157244 Enhancer 0.4 FANTOM5 Ensembl 13.8 +40.2 40219 0.8 GRIA2 LOC391707 RNU6-582P HSALNG0038115 lnc-PDGFC-2
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GRIA2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for GRIA2

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GRIA2 gene promoter:
  • Chx10
  • p53
  • POU3F2
  • POU3F2 (N-Oct-5a)
  • POU3F2 (N-Oct-5b)
  • POU6F1 (c2)

Genomic Locations for GRIA2 Gene

Genomic Locations for GRIA2 Gene
chr4:157,204,182-157,366,075
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
161,894 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr4:158,125,334-158,287,227
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
161,894 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for GRIA2 Gene

Genes around GRIA2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GRIA2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GRIA2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GRIA2 Gene

Proteins for GRIA2 Gene

  • Protein details for GRIA2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P42262-GRIA2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Glutamate receptor 2
    Protein Accession:
    P42262
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8MT92
    • I6L997
    • Q96FP6

    Protein attributes for GRIA2 Gene

    Size:
    883 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    98821 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotetramer or heterotetramer of pore-forming glutamate receptor subunits. Tetramers may be formed by the dimerization of dimers. May interact with MPP4. Forms a ternary complex with GRIP1 and CSPG4. Interacts with ATAD1 in an ATP-dependent manner. ATAD1-catalyzed ATP hydrolysis disrupts binding to ATAD1 and to GRIP1 and leads to AMPAR complex disassembly. Interacts with GRIP2. Isoform 1, but not isoform 3, interacts with PICK1/PRKCABP. Interacts with GRIA1 and SYNDIG1. Interacts with LRFN1 (By similarity). Found in a complex with GRIA1, GRIA3, GRIA4, CNIH2, CNIH3, CACNG2, CACNG3, CACNG4, CACNG5, CACNG7 and CACNG8. Interacts with CACNG5 (By similarity). Interacts with SNX27 (via PDZ domain); the interaction is required for recycling to the plasma membrane when endocytosed and prevent degradation in lysosomes. Interacts with OLFM2 (By similarity). Interacts with AP4B1, AP4E1 and AP4M1; probably indirect it mediates the somatodendritic localization of GRIA2 in neurons (By similarity). Forms a complex with NSG1, GRIP1 and STX12; controls the intracellular fate of AMPAR and the endosomal sorting of the GRIA2 subunit toward recycling and membrane targeting (By similarity).
    Miscellaneous:
    • The postsynaptic actions of Glu are mediated by a variety of receptors that are named according to their selective agonists. This receptor binds AMPA (quisqualate) > glutamate > kainate.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GRIA2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GRIA2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for GRIA2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GRIA2 Gene

  • Palmitoylated. Depalmitoylated upon glutamate stimulation. Cys-610 palmitoylation leads to Golgi retention and decreased cell surface expression. In contrast, Cys-836 palmitoylation does not affect cell surface expression but regulates stimulation-dependent endocytosis (By similarity).
  • Glycosylation at Asn256, Asn370, Asn406, and Asn413
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GRIA2 Gene

Domains & Families for GRIA2 Gene

Gene Families for GRIA2 Gene

HGNC:
IUPHAR :
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted membrane proteins
  • Transporters

Protein Domains for GRIA2 Gene

Blocks:
  • Extracellular ligand-binding receptor
  • Ionotropic glutamate receptor
  • NMDA receptor signature
InterPro:
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GRIA2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Glutamate receptor ionotropic, AMPA 2 (GRIA2_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P42262

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GRIA2_HUMAN :
  • The M4 transmembrane segment mediates tetramerization and is required for cell surface expression.
  • Belongs to the glutamate-gated ion channel (TC 1.A.10.1) family. GRIA2 subfamily.
Domain:
  • The M4 transmembrane segment mediates tetramerization and is required for cell surface expression.
Family:
  • Belongs to the glutamate-gated ion channel (TC 1.A.10.1) family. GRIA2 subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GRIA2: view

Function for GRIA2 Gene

Molecular function for GRIA2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inactive state, characterized by the presence of bound agonist. In the presence of CACNG4 or CACNG7 or CACNG8, shows resensitization which is characterized by a delayed accumulation of current flux upon continued application of glutamate. Through complex formation with NSG1, GRIP1 and STX12 controls the intracellular fate of AMPAR and the endosomal sorting of the GRIA2 subunit toward recycling and membrane targeting (By similarity).
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glutamate receptor,subunit 2,ionotropic,AMPA (amino-3-hydroxy 5 methyl-isoxazole-propionic) class,with flip and flop isoforms,mediating the fast component of excitatory post synaptic currents in the central nervous system,interacting with and signaling through the protein-kinase LYN

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GRIA2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001540 amyloid-beta binding NAS 20032460
GO:0004970 ionotropic glutamate receptor activity IDA,IEA 20614889
GO:0004971 contributes_to AMPA glutamate receptor activity NAS,TAS 20032460
GO:0005216 ion channel activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 12130635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRIA2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GRIA2: view

Animal Models for GRIA2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GRIA2:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for GRIA2

CRISPR Products

miRNA for GRIA2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GRIA2

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GRIA2 Gene

Localization for GRIA2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRIA2 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Cell junction, synapse, postsynaptic cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Note=Interaction with CACNG2, CNIH2 and CNIH3 promotes cell surface expression (By similarity). Displays a somatodendritic localization and is excluded from axons in neurons (By similarity). {ECO:0000250, ECO:0000250 UniProtKB:P23819}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GRIA2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
endoplasmic reticulum 4
extracellular 2
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
endosome 2
cytosol 2
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1
peroxisome 0

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GRIA2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum IEA --
GO:0005789 endoplasmic reticulum membrane IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS,IEA --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane ISS --
GO:0009897 external side of plasma membrane TAS 21221849
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRIA2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GRIA2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GRIA2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GRIA2: view

Pathways by source for GRIA2 Gene

1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for GRIA2 Gene
  • Neurophysiological process Glutamate regulation of Dopamine D1A receptor signaling
5 Qiagen pathways for GRIA2 Gene
  • CREB Pathway
  • Dopamine-DARPP32 Feedback onto cAMP Pathway
  • Intracellular Calcium Signaling
  • Neuropathic Pain-Signaling in Dorsal Horn Neurons
  • Pathogenesis of ALS
2 Cell Signaling Technology pathways for GRIA2 Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for GRIA2 Gene

Other effect:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GRIA2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006811 ion transport IEA --
GO:0007165 signal transduction TAS 8003671
GO:0007268 chemical synaptic transmission TAS 8003671
GO:0034220 ion transmembrane transport IEA --
GO:0035235 ionotropic glutamate receptor signaling pathway IEA,IDA 20614889
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRIA2: view

Drugs & Compounds for GRIA2 Gene

(135) Drugs for GRIA2 Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, DGIdb, IUPHAR, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek