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Aliases for GPR21 Gene

Aliases for GPR21 Gene

  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor 21 2 3 5
  • Probable G-Protein Coupled Receptor 21 3

External Ids for GPR21 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GPR21 Gene

  • GC09P116901
  • GC09U900008
  • GC09P121172
  • GC09P122876
  • GC09P124836
  • GC09P125795
  • GC09P095411

Summaries for GPR21 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GPR21 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor 1 family. G-protein coupled receptors are membrane proteins which activate signaling cascades as a response to extracellular stress. The encoded protein activates a Gq signal transduction pathway which mobilizes calcium. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

GeneCards Summary for GPR21 Gene

GPR21 (G Protein-Coupled Receptor 21) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Vesicle-mediated transport and Peptide ligand-binding receptors. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and G-protein coupled amine receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GPR52.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPR21 Gene

  • Orphan receptor.

Gene Wiki entry for GPR21 Gene

Additional gene information for GPR21 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GPR21 Gene

Genomics for GPR21 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GPR21 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GPR21 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH09J123027 Enhancer 0.4 dbSUPER 650.7 -1.8 -1775 1.9 ZBTB40 SPI1 GPR21 RPS25P8 GC09M123030 RABGAP1 RNY1P15
GH09J123438 Enhancer 0.7 FANTOM5 ENCODE 1.8 +408.9 408922 1.2 SREBF1 MXI1 POLR2A HLF DENND1A GPR21 RABGAP1 GC09P123406 MIR7150
GH09J123239 Enhancer 0.4 FANTOM5 2.2 +210.0 209950 0.1 GATA3 DPF2 FOS STRBP MIR600 MIR600HG OR1L6 GPR21 RC3H2 ZBTB26 ZBTB6 PIR44660 GC09M123190
GH09J123033 Promoter/Enhancer 1.1 EPDnew ENCODE dbSUPER 0.7 +3.7 3677 0.8 MXI1 POLR2A RABGAP1 GPR21 LOC100422501
GH09J123425 Enhancer 0.3 FANTOM5 2.2 +395.6 395616 0.2 ZBTB33 GPR21 RABGAP1 CRB2 GC09P123406 MIR7150 DENND1A
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GPR21 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GPR21 gene promoter:
  • Arnt
  • AhR
  • STAT5A
  • HFH-3
  • FOXI1
  • SRY
  • GCNF-2
  • GCNF
  • GCNF-1
  • NF-AT4

Genomic Locations for GPR21 Gene

Genomic Locations for GPR21 Gene
9,089 bases
Plus strand
1,170 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GPR21 Gene

Genes around GPR21 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GPR21 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GPR21 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GPR21 Gene

Proteins for GPR21 Gene

  • Protein details for GPR21 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Probable G-protein coupled receptor 21
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R8W9
    • Q6NXU2

    Protein attributes for GPR21 Gene

    349 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    39515 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for GPR21 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GPR21 Gene

  • Glycosylation at isoforms=8 and isoforms=2
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GPR21 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GPR21 Gene

Domains & Families for GPR21 Gene

Gene Families for GPR21 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • G-protein coupled receptors
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for GPR21 Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GPR21 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GPR21: view

Function for GPR21 Gene

Molecular function for GPR21 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Orphan receptor.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
G protein coupled receptor 21,expressed in brain

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GPR21 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001588 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity, coupled via Gs IBA --
GO:0004871 obsolete signal transducer activity IEA --
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPR21: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GPR21: view

Animal Models for GPR21 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GPR21:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for GPR21

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GPR21

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GPR21 Gene

Localization for GPR21 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPR21 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GPR21 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GPR21 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IEA --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPR21: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GPR21 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GPR21 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GPR21: view

Pathways by source for GPR21 Gene

1 BioSystems pathway for GPR21 Gene
3 Reactome pathways for GPR21 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GPR21 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0007212 dopamine receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0040018 positive regulation of multicellular organism growth IEA --
GO:0042593 glucose homeostasis IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPR21: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GPR21 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GPR21 Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for GPR21 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GPR21 Gene

(2) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(7) Additional mRNA sequences :
(36) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GPR21 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 21:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GPR21

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GPR21 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GPR21 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GPR21 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GPR21 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GPR21 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GPR21 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GPR21 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Not detected in the brain regions thalamus, putamen, caudate, frontal cortex, pons, hypothalamus, hippocampus.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GPR21 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.3)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GPR21: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GPR21 Gene

Orthologs for GPR21 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GPR21 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GPR21 33
  • 99.62 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GPR21 34 33
  • 94.17 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GPR21 33
  • 93.31 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gpr21 16 34 33
  • 89.21 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gpr21 33
  • 88.63 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GPR21 34
  • 85 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GPR21 33
  • 78.35 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 18 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gpr21 33
  • 69.16 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii LOC101884949 33
  • 63.73 (n)
zgc:162592 34
  • 19 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta DopEcR 34
  • 22 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea F59D12.1 34
  • 21 (a)
Species where no ortholog for GPR21 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GPR21 Gene

Gene Tree for GPR21 (if available)
Gene Tree for GPR21 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GPR21: view image

Paralogs for GPR21 Gene

Paralogs for GPR21 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for GPR21 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GPR21: view

Variants for GPR21 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GPR21 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000024059 -- 123,036,317(+) G/A 3_prime_UTR_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant
rs1000054792 -- 123,036,678(+) A/G 3_prime_UTR_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant
rs1000888901 -- 123,035,978(+) AAAAA/AAA 3_prime_UTR_variant, downstream_transcript_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant
rs1000907635 -- 123,030,109(+) A/C 5_prime_UTR_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001359981 -- 123,029,770(+) C/T 5_prime_UTR_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GPR21 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv831717 CNV gain 17160897

Variation tolerance for GPR21 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 20.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.19; 39.65% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GPR21 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPR21 Gene

Disorders for GPR21 Gene

Additional Disease Information for GPR21

No disorders were found for GPR21 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GPR21 Gene

Publications for GPR21 Gene

  1. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 58
  2. Cloning and chromosomal mapping of four putative novel human G-protein-coupled receptor genes. (PMID: 9073069) O'Dowd BF … George SR (Gene 1997) 3 4 58
  3. Architecture of the human interactome defines protein communities and disease networks. (PMID: 28514442) Huttlin EL … Harper JW (Nature 2017) 3 58
  4. Regulating the effects of GPR21, a novel target for type 2 diabetes. (PMID: 27243589) Leonard S … Findlay JB (Scientific reports 2016) 3 58
  5. Identification of novel ATP13A2 interactors and their role in α-synuclein misfolding and toxicity. (PMID: 22645275) Usenovic M … Krainc D (Human molecular genetics 2012) 3 58

Products for GPR21 Gene

Sources for GPR21 Gene

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