The protein encoded by this gene is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor whose ligand is unknown. This gene is overexpressed in triple-negative breast cancer, and disruption of this gene slows the proliferation of basal breast cancer cells. Therefore, this gene is a potential drug target for triple-negative breast cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2017] See more...

Aliases for GPR161 Gene

Aliases for GPR161 Gene

  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor 161 2 3 5
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor 161 3 4
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor RE2 3 4
  • RE2 2 3
  • GPR161 5

External Ids for GPR161 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GPR161 Gene

  • GC01M165241
  • GC01M164780
  • GC01M166321
  • GC01M168053
  • GC01M139298

Summaries for GPR161 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GPR161 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor whose ligand is unknown. This gene is overexpressed in triple-negative breast cancer, and disruption of this gene slows the proliferation of basal breast cancer cells. Therefore, this gene is a potential drug target for triple-negative breast cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2017]

GeneCards Summary for GPR161 Gene

GPR161 (G Protein-Coupled Receptor 161) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GPR161 include Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome and Hyperpigmentation With Or Without Hypopigmentation, Familial Progressive. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Signaling by Hedgehog. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include G protein-coupled receptor activity and G protein-coupled amine receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is HTR4.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for GPR161 Gene

  • Key negative regulator of Shh signaling, which promotes the processing of GLI3 into GLI3R during neural tube development. Recruited by TULP3 and the IFT-A complex to primary cilia and acts as a regulator of the PKA-dependent basal repression machinery in Shh signaling by increasing cAMP levels, leading to promote the PKA-dependent processing of GLI3 into GLI3R and repress the Shh signaling. In presence of SHH, it is removed from primary cilia and is internalized into recycling endosomes, preventing its activity and allowing activation of the Shh signaling. Its ligand is unknown (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for GPR161 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for GPR161 Gene

Genomics for GPR161 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for GPR161 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH01J168134 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 600.7 +1.5 1466 3.6 HNRNPL PRDM10 IKZF1 ZNF692 PRDM1 MTA2 POLR2A ZNF24 PATZ1 ZNF501 GPR161 lnc-MPC2-1 TIPRL SFT2D2 MPC2
GH01J168177 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 7.5 -41.7 -41657 3 CREB1 GATAD2A CTCF ATF7 PRDM10 ZNF629 ZNF512 RFX1 SIX5 IKZF1 TIPRL MPZL1 POU2F1 GPR161 MPC2 HSALNG0008270 SFT2D2
GH01J168170 Enhancer 0.6 Ensembl 18.6 -33.5 -33534 0.8 PAX8 USF1 GABPA ZNF395 ZNF384 ZNF584 EBF1 PHF20 CEBPG ATF3 GPR161 SFT2D2 TIPRL
GH01J168112 Enhancer 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE 12.4 +25.7 25666 4 PRDM10 IKZF1 ZNF692 ZNF174 ZNF300 PRDM1 ZNF776 ZNF501 ZNF600 PKNOX1 POU2F1 GPR161 ENSG00000272205 TBX19 MPC2 DCAF6 lnc-MPC2-1 piR-58667
GH01J168162 Enhancer 0.8 Ensembl 11.3 -24.0 -24034 0.2 RFX1 LEF1 IKZF1 JUND MTA2 MTA1 REST DPF2 HDAC1 SOX6 GPR161 POU2F1 TIPRL
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GPR161 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for GPR161

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GPR161 gene promoter:
  • AML1a
  • GATA-1
  • GATA-2
  • GATA-3
  • IRF-7A
  • ITF-2
  • Pax-2
  • Pax-2a
  • Pax-2b
  • Tal-1beta

Genomic Locations for GPR161 Gene

Genomic Locations for GPR161 Gene
chr1:168,079,542-168,137,667
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
58,126 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr1:168,053,997-168,106,821
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
52,825 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for GPR161 Gene

Genes around GPR161 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GPR161 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GPR161 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GPR161 Gene

Proteins for GPR161 Gene

  • Protein details for GPR161 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q8N6U8-GP161_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    G-protein coupled receptor 161
    Protein Accession:
    Q8N6U8
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B3KV34
    • B7Z5D7
    • B7Z5E8
    • B7Z5Z6
    • F5GXD6
    • F5H6J7
    • O75963
    • Q5TGK0
    • Q5TGK1
    • Q5TGK2

    Protein attributes for GPR161 Gene

    Size:
    529 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    58559 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for GPR161 Gene

neXtProt entry for GPR161 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GPR161 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn4 and Asn15
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GPR161 Gene

Domains & Families for GPR161 Gene

Gene Families for GPR161 Gene

HGNC:
IUPHAR :
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • G-protein coupled receptors
  • Predicted membrane proteins
  • Transporters

Protein Domains for GPR161 Gene

InterPro:
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GPR161 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • cDNA FLJ56130, highly similar to Probable G-protein coupled receptor 161 (B7Z5E8_HUMAN)
  • G-protein coupled receptor RE2 (GP161_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q8N6U8

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GP161_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GPR161: view

Function for GPR161 Gene

Molecular function for GPR161 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Key negative regulator of Shh signaling, which promotes the processing of GLI3 into GLI3R during neural tube development. Recruited by TULP3 and the IFT-A complex to primary cilia and acts as a regulator of the PKA-dependent basal repression machinery in Shh signaling by increasing cAMP levels, leading to promote the PKA-dependent processing of GLI3 into GLI3R and repress the Shh signaling. In presence of SHH, it is removed from primary cilia and is internalized into recycling endosomes, preventing its activity and allowing activation of the Shh signaling. Its ligand is unknown (By similarity).

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GPR161 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GPR161 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004930 G protein-coupled receptor activity ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPR161: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GPR161: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for GPR161 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for GPR161 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GPR161:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for GPR161

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for GPR161

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GPR161 Gene

Localization for GPR161 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPR161 Gene

Cell projection, cilium membrane. Multi-pass membrane protein. Cell membrane. Multi-pass membrane protein. Note=Mainly localizes to primary cilium in a TULP3 and IFT-A complex-dependent manner. In presence of SHH, it is removed from primary cilia and is internalized into recycling endosomes and is apparently not degraded (By similarity). {ECO:0000250}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GPR161 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
endosome 4
extracellular 2
cytoskeleton 2
nucleus 2
cytosol 2
mitochondrion 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Nucleoli (2)
  • Nucleoplasm (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GPR161 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IEA --
GO:0005929 cilium ISS --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
GO:0030666 endocytic vesicle membrane TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPR161: view

Pathways & Interactions for GPR161 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GPR161: view

Pathways by source for GPR161 Gene

1 BioSystems pathway for GPR161 Gene
1 KEGG pathway for GPR161 Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for GPR161 Gene

Activates:
Is activated by:
Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GPR161 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0007189 adenylate cyclase-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA,ISS --
GO:0007275 multicellular organism development IEA --
GO:1901621 negative regulation of smoothened signaling pathway involved in dorsal/ventral neural tube patterning IEA,ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPR161: view

Drugs & Compounds for GPR161 Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for GPR161 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GPR161 Gene

16 REFSEQ mRNAs :
14 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
10 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for GPR161

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GPR161 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GPR161 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GPR161

Expression for GPR161 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for GPR161 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GPR161 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Uterus (x5.8).

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for GPR161

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GPR161 Gene:

Hs.271809

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GPR161 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.7)
  • Skin(2.3)
  • Kidney(2.1)
  • Liver(2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GPR161 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
Systems:
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • endocrine
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • reproductive
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
Regions:
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • ear
  • eye
  • head
  • hypothalamus
  • neck
  • pituitary gland
  • thyroid
Thorax:
  • heart
  • lung
Abdomen:
  • adrenal gland
  • intestine
  • large intestine
  • small intestine
Pelvis:
  • penis
  • uterus
General:
  • blood
  • coagulation system
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • red blood cell
  • skin
  • sweat gland
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GPR161: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GPR161 Gene

Orthologs for GPR161 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GPR161 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GPR161 30
  • 99.24 (n)
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GPR161 30 31
  • 90.55 (n)
OneToOne
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GPR161 31
  • 89 (a)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GPR161 30 31
  • 88.57 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gpr161 30
  • 88.36 (n)
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gpr161 30 17 31
  • 88.28 (n)
OneToOne
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GPR161 31
  • 74 (a)
OneToOne
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GPR161 30 31
  • 76.39 (n)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GPR161 31
  • 78 (a)
OneToOne
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gpr161 30
  • 66.67 (n)
Str.10351 30
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gpr161 30 31
  • 67.35 (n)
OneToMany
GPR161 (2 of 2) 31
  • 60 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for GPR161 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GPR161 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GPR161 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GPR161 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GPR161: view image

Paralogs for GPR161 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GPR161: view

Variants for GPR161 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for GPR161 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
725265 Benign: not provided 168,097,223(-) A/G SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT,FIVE_PRIME_UTR_VARIANT
734108 Benign: not provided 168,104,776(-) G/A SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT,INTRON_VARIANT
737015 Likely Benign: not provided 168,085,711(-) A/G SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT
743752 Likely Benign: not provided 168,096,722(-) G/C SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT
748729 Likely Benign: not provided 168,096,530(-) G/A SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for GPR161 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GPR161 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2666700 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2719239 CNV deletion 23290073
esv32660 CNV loss 17666407
esv3587858 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1078878 OTHER inversion 25765185
nsv1079039 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1120074 OTHER inversion 24896259
nsv441719 CNV loss 18776908
nsv506964 OTHER sequence alteration 20534489
nsv825309 CNV loss 20364138

Variation tolerance for GPR161 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 8.94% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.09; 38.16% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GPR161 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
GPR161
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
GPR161

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPR161 Gene

Disorders for GPR161 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(6) MalaCards diseases for GPR161 Gene - From: Orphanet, DISEASES, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Additional Disease Information for GPR161

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GPR161: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GPR161 Gene

Publications for GPR161 Gene

  1. Follow-up of a major linkage peak on chromosome 1 reveals suggestive QTLs associated with essential hypertension: GenNet study. (PMID: 19536175) Ehret GB … Chakravarti A (European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2009) 3 41
  2. Pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox 1 (PBX1) shows functional and possible genetic association with bone mineral density variation. (PMID: 19064610) Cheung CL … Kung AW (Human molecular genetics 2009) 3 41
  3. The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. (PMID: 16710414) Gregory SG … Prigmore E (Nature 2006) 3 4
  4. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T … Sugano S (Nature genetics 2004) 3 4
  5. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4

Products for GPR161 Gene

  • Signalway Proteins for GPR161

Sources for GPR161 Gene