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Aliases for GPR139 Gene

Aliases for GPR139 Gene

  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor 139 2 3 5
  • G(Q)-Coupled Orphan Receptor GPRg1 3 4
  • PGR3 3 4
  • Probable G-Protein Coupled Receptor 139 3
  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor PGR3 3
  • G-Protein-Coupled Receptor PGR3 4
  • GPRg1 3
  • GPRG1 4

External Ids for GPR139 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GPR139 Gene

  • GC16M020010
  • GC16M019950
  • GC16M018579

Summaries for GPR139 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GPR139 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the rhodopsin family of G-protein-coupled receptors. The encoded protein is almost exclusively expressed in the central nervous system. L-tryptophan and L-phenylalanine may act as the physiologic ligands of the encoded protein. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]

GeneCards Summary for GPR139 Gene

GPR139 (G Protein-Coupled Receptor 139) is a Protein Coding gene. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and neuropeptide receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GPR142.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPR139 Gene

  • Orphan receptor. Seems to act through a G(q/11)-mediated pathway.

Tocris Summary for GPR139 Gene

  • Orphan 7-TM receptors (orphan GPCRs) are receptors for which there are no defined ligands. Traditionally, receptors are characterized by specific ligands and stimuli; the search for ligands of orphan receptors is therefore akin to reverse-engineering this process.

Gene Wiki entry for GPR139 Gene

Additional gene information for GPR139 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GPR139 Gene

Genomics for GPR139 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GPR139 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GPR139 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH16J020073 Promoter 0.7 EPDnew 650.7 +0.1 61 0.1 MXI1 POLR2A EZH2 GPR139 GC16M019876
GH16J020074 Enhancer 0.4 ENCODE 650.7 -0.1 -57 0.1 MXI1 POLR2A EZH2 GPR139 SALL4P3
GH16J020084 Enhancer 0.8 ENCODE 0.4 -10.9 -10917 0.2 ATF1 HSF1 FOS ATF7 ZEB2 ZNF217 SMARCA4 GTF2F1 JUN BACH1 GPR139 SALL4P3
GH16J020068 Enhancer 0.2 FANTOM5 0.4 +5.6 5593 0.2 IQCK GPRC5B GPR139 GC16M019876
GH16J020137 Enhancer 0.2 FANTOM5 0.2 -63.9 -63937 0.3 SALL4P3 GPR139
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GPR139 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GPR139 gene promoter:
  • NRSF form 2
  • NRSF form 1
  • STAT3
  • E47
  • ZID
  • C/EBPbeta
  • FOXO3b
  • FOXO3a
  • FOXO3
  • MZF-1

Genomic Locations for GPR139 Gene

Genomic Locations for GPR139 Gene
42,463 bases
Minus strand
42,433 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GPR139 Gene

Genes around GPR139 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GPR139 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GPR139 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GPR139 Gene

Proteins for GPR139 Gene

  • Protein details for GPR139 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Probable G-protein coupled receptor 139
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K5R9
    • Q86SP2
    • Q8TDU8

    Protein attributes for GPR139 Gene

    353 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    40679 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=BAB89307.1; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

neXtProt entry for GPR139 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GPR139 Gene

  • Glycosylation at isoforms=11
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GPR139 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GPR139 Gene

Domains & Families for GPR139 Gene

Gene Families for GPR139 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • G-protein coupled receptors
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for GPR139 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GPR139: view

Function for GPR139 Gene

Molecular function for GPR139 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Orphan receptor. Seems to act through a G(q/11)-mediated pathway.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GPR139 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GPR139 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity IEA --
GO:0008188 neuropeptide receptor activity IEA --
GO:0008528 G-protein coupled peptide receptor activity IBA --
GO:0046983 protein dimerization activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPR139: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GPR139: view

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GPR139 Gene

Localization for GPR139 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPR139 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GPR139 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GPR139 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IEA --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane IBA --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPR139: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GPR139 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GPR139 Gene

SuperPathways for GPR139 Gene

No Data Available

Interacting Proteins for GPR139 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GPR139 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IDA 15845401
GO:0007200 phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0007218 neuropeptide signaling pathway IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPR139: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for GPR139 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GPR139 Gene

(8) Drugs for GPR139 Gene - From: DGIdb and Tocris

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
PF9 tetrasodium salt Pharma Potent GPR17 agonist 0
Prosaptide TX14(A) Pharma Potent GPR37 and GPR37L1 agonist 0
TC-O 9311 Pharma Potent and selective GPR139 agonist 0
26RFa Pharma 0
Grifolic acid Pharma Selective partial FFA4 (GPR120) agonist 0

(1) Additional Compounds for GPR139 Gene - From: Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
TC-G 1008

(5) Tocris Compounds for GPR139 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Diphenyleneiodonium chloride GPR3 agonist; also inhibits NOS and NADPH oxidases 4673-26-1
PF9 tetrasodium salt Potent GPR17 agonist 851265-78-6
Prosaptide TX14(A) Potent GPR37 and GPR37L1 agonist 196391-82-9
TC-G 1008 Potent and selective GPR39 agonist 1621175-65-2
TC-O 9311 Potent and selective GPR139 agonist 444932-31-4
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GPR139: view

Transcripts for GPR139 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GPR139 Gene

(2) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(7) Additional mRNA sequences :
(3) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(2) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GPR139 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 139:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GPR139 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GPR139 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GPR139 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GPR139 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GPR139 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Nucleus accumbens (basal ganglia) (x14.7), Brain - Caudate (basal ganglia) (x12.4), Brain - Putamen (basal ganglia) (x10.3), and Brain - Hypothalamus (x9.2).

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GPR139 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GPR139 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GPR139 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed almost exclusively in the brain. Detected at very low levels in the peripheral tissues.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GPR139 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.4)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GPR139: view

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GPR139 Gene

Orthologs for GPR139 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GPR139 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GPR139 34 33
  • 99.72 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GPR139 34
  • 96 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GPR139 34 33
  • 93.37 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GPR139 34
  • 93 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GPR139 34 33
  • 92.61 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gpr139 16 34 33
  • 90.05 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gpr139 33
  • 89.47 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GPR139 34 33
  • 79.68 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GPR139 34
  • 85 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gpr139 33
  • 76.05 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii GPR139 34
  • 71 (a)
LOC798482 33
  • 69.15 (n)
Species where no ortholog for GPR139 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GPR139 Gene

Gene Tree for GPR139 (if available)
Gene Tree for GPR139 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GPR139: view image

Paralogs for GPR139 Gene

Paralogs for GPR139 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for GPR139 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

  • GP139_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GPR139: view

Variants for GPR139 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GPR139 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 16 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000067567 -- 20,073,342(-) C/G intron_variant
rs1000101837 -- 20,036,865(-) A/G intron_variant
rs1000112063 -- 20,032,585(-) G/A 5_prime_UTR_variant, coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1000169739 -- 20,033,944(-) A/G intron_variant
rs1000303561 -- 20,055,567(-) C/T intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GPR139 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv436835 CNV insertion 17901297
nsv479841 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878

Variation tolerance for GPR139 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 40.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.36; 26.94% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GPR139 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPR139 Gene

Disorders for GPR139 Gene

Additional Disease Information for GPR139

No disorders were found for GPR139 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GPR139 Gene

Publications for GPR139 Gene

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel Gq-coupled orphan receptor GPRg1 exclusively expressed in the central nervous system. (PMID: 15845401) Matsuo A … Shigeyoshi Y (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005) 3 4 22 58
  2. GPR139, an Orphan Receptor Highly Enriched in the Habenula and Septum, Is Activated by the Essential Amino Acids L-Tryptophan and L-Phenylalanine. (PMID: 26349500) Liu C … Lovenberg TW (Molecular pharmacology 2015) 2 3 58
  3. Identification and SAR of Glycine Benzamides as Potent Agonists for the GPR139 Receptor. (PMID: 26396690) Dvorak CA … Carruthers NI (ACS medicinal chemistry letters 2015) 2 3 58
  4. The G protein-coupled receptor repertoires of human and mouse. (PMID: 12679517) Vassilatis DK … Gaitanaris GA (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003) 3 4 58
  5. Identification of G protein-coupled receptor genes from the human genome sequence. (PMID: 12044878) Takeda S … Mitaku S (FEBS letters 2002) 3 4 58

Products for GPR139 Gene

Sources for GPR139 Gene

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