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Aliases for GPR12 Gene

Aliases for GPR12 Gene

  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor 12 2 3 5
  • Protein Phosphatase 1, Regulatory Subunit 84 2 3
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor 12 3
  • PPP1R84 3
  • GPCR12 3
  • GPCR21 3

External Ids for GPR12 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GPR12 Gene

  • GC13M025312
  • GC13M021312
  • GC13M026262
  • GC13M025130
  • GC13M026230
  • GC13M027331
  • GC13M008152

Summaries for GPR12 Gene

GeneCards Summary for GPR12 Gene

GPR12 (G Protein-Coupled Receptor 12) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and phosphatidylcholine binding. An important paralog of this gene is GPR3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPR12 Gene

  • Promotes neurite outgrowth and blocks myelin inhibition in neurons (By similarity). Receptor with constitutive G(s) signaling activity that stimulates cyclic AMP production.

Gene Wiki entry for GPR12 Gene

Additional gene information for GPR12 Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GPR12 Gene

Genomics for GPR12 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GPR12 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GPR12 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH13J026760 Promoter 0.5 EPDnew 650.7 -0.1 -77 0.1 GPR12 PIR61222
GH13J026785 Enhancer 0.8 Ensembl ENCODE 7.6 -25.0 -25032 1.6 KLF1 SP3 USF1 ZNF777 ZNF189 MAX FEZF1 POLR2A KLF9 MYC PIR61222 GPR12 FGFR1OP2P1
GH13J026720 Enhancer 0.7 Ensembl ENCODE 5.5 +39.3 39283 1.4 POLR2A MAX MYC GABPA GPR12 GC13P026737 PIR53379
GH13J027034 Enhancer 1.3 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 1.6 -275.6 -275589 3.5 SMARCC1 NRF1 BACH1 SIN3A ZMYM3 ZNF16 ZIC2 NR2F2 SP1 FOSL1 RPL21 RASL11A RNU6-70P POLR1D WASF3 GPR12 GC13P027043 RPS20P32
GH13J026592 Enhancer 0.2 FANTOM5 1.8 +168.7 168746 0 WASF3 WASF3-AS1 GPR12 RPS3AP44
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GPR12 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GPR12 gene promoter:
  • deltaCREB
  • CREB
  • LCR-F1
  • ARP-1
  • HFH-1
  • aMEF-2
  • MEF-2A
  • AML1a
  • YY1
  • p53

Genomic Locations for GPR12 Gene

Genomic Locations for GPR12 Gene
5,586 bases
Minus strand
5,586 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GPR12 Gene

Genes around GPR12 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GPR12 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GPR12 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GPR12 Gene

Proteins for GPR12 Gene

  • Protein details for GPR12 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    G-protein coupled receptor 12
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5T8P3

    Protein attributes for GPR12 Gene

    334 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    36730 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for GPR12 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GPR12 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn24 and Asn8
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GPR12 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GPR12 Gene

Domains & Families for GPR12 Gene

Gene Families for GPR12 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GPR12: view

Function for GPR12 Gene

Molecular function for GPR12 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Promotes neurite outgrowth and blocks myelin inhibition in neurons (By similarity). Receptor with constitutive G(s) signaling activity that stimulates cyclic AMP production.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
G protein coupled receptor 12

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GPR12 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GPR12 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity IEA,TAS --
GO:0031210 phosphatidylcholine binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPR12: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GPR12: view

Animal Models for GPR12 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GPR12:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for GPR12 Gene

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GPR12

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GPR12 Gene

Localization for GPR12 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPR12 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GPR12 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GPR12 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005623 cell IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IEA --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane TAS 8530049
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPR12: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GPR12 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GPR12 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GPR12: view

Pathways by source for GPR12 Gene

1 BioSystems pathway for GPR12 Gene

Interacting Proteins for GPR12 Gene

STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)
Selected Interacting proteins: ENSP00000370844 P47775-GPR12_HUMAN for GPR12 Gene via STRING IID

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GPR12 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006874 cellular calcium ion homeostasis IEA --
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA,TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPR12: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GPR12 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GPR12 Gene

(5) Drugs for GPR12 Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, and IUPHAR

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
cannabidiol Approved, Investigational Pharma Partial agonist, Agonist, Antagonist, Channel blocker, Activator, Target, inverse agonist 0
Nabiximols Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, inverse agonist 0
Medical Cannabis Experimental, Investigational Pharma Target, inverse agonist 0
Sphingosine-1-phosphate Pharma Full agonist, Agonist endogenous second messenger and ligand for S1PR1, Endogenous agonist at S1P1-5 0
Sphingosylphosphorylcholine Pharma 0

(1) Additional Compounds for GPR12 Gene - From: IUPHAR

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
sphingosyl phosphorylcholine
Full agonist, Agonist
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GPR12: view

Transcripts for GPR12 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GPR12 Gene

(2) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(14) Additional mRNA sequences :
(26) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(2) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GPR12 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 12:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GPR12

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GPR12 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GPR12 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GPR12 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GPR12 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GPR12 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Nucleus accumbens (basal ganglia) (x7.7), Brain - Putamen (basal ganglia) (x6.2), Brain - Cerebellar Hemisphere (x5.9), Brain - Caudate (basal ganglia) (x5.6), and Brain - Cerebellum (x4.8).

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GPR12 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GPR12 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GPR12 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.6)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GPR12: view

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GPR12 Gene

Orthologs for GPR12 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GPR12 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GPR12 34 33
  • 99.6 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GPR12 34 33
  • 93.81 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GPR12 34
  • 93 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gpr12 16 34 33
  • 90.42 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gpr12 33
  • 90.12 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GPR12 34 33
  • 89.32 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GPR12 34
  • 81 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GPR12 34 33
  • 82.13 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GPR12 34
  • 87 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gpr12 33
  • 78.83 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gpr12 34 33
  • 67.37 (n)
Species where no ortholog for GPR12 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GPR12 Gene

Gene Tree for GPR12 (if available)
Gene Tree for GPR12 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GPR12: view image

Paralogs for GPR12 Gene

Paralogs for GPR12 Gene

(6) SIMAP similar genes for GPR12 Gene using alignment to 5 proteins:

  • A8K2F5_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GPR12: view

Variants for GPR12 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GPR12 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 13 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000391828 -- 26,758,392(-) A/T 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs1000655373 -- 26,762,066(-) C/A/G/T upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001138668 -- 26,760,317(-) C/G intron_variant
rs1001179595 -- 26,761,826(-) G/A upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001573418 -- 26,754,986(-) G/A downstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GPR12 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv455849 CNV loss 19166990
nsv507687 OTHER sequence alteration 20534489
nsv561386 CNV loss 21841781
nsv952530 CNV deletion 24416366
nsv971 CNV deletion 18451855

Variation tolerance for GPR12 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 22.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.79; 16.55% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GPR12 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPR12 Gene

Disorders for GPR12 Gene

Additional Disease Information for GPR12

No disorders were found for GPR12 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GPR12 Gene

Publications for GPR12 Gene

  1. Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of human genes encoding three closely related G protein-coupled receptors. (PMID: 8530049) Song ZH … Bonner TI (Genomics 1995) 2 3 4 58
  2. The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 13. (PMID: 15057823) Dunham A … Ross MT (Nature 2004) 3 4 58
  3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 58
  4. Fluid shear stress differentially regulates gpr3, gpr6, and gpr12 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. (PMID: 12649592) Uhlenbrock K … Kostenis E (Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology 2003) 3 22 58
  5. Cannabidiol, a novel inverse agonist for GPR12. (PMID: 28888984) Brown KJ … Song ZH (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2017) 3 58

Products for GPR12 Gene

Sources for GPR12 Gene

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