Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases (EC 2.3.1.51) catalyze the conversion of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to phosphatidic acid (PA). LPA and PA are involved in signal transduction and lipid biosynthesis.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004] See more...

Aliases for GPAT4 Gene

Aliases for GPAT4 Gene

  • Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase 4 2 3 4 5
  • 1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase 6 (Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase, Zeta) 2 3
  • Testis Spermatogenesis Apoptosis-Related Protein 7 3 4
  • 1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase 6 2 4
  • Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase Zeta 3 4
  • 1-AGP Acyltransferase 6 3 4
  • EC 2.3.1.15 4 52
  • LPAAT-Zeta 3 4
  • 1-AGPAT 6 3 4
  • AGPAT6 3 4
  • TSARG7 3 4
  • 1-Acyl-Sn-Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase Zeta 3
  • Acyl-CoA:Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase 4 4
  • Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase, Zeta 2
  • Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase 6 3
  • LPAATZ 3

External Ids for GPAT4 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GPAT4 Gene

  • AGPAT6

Summaries for GPAT4 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GPAT4 Gene

  • Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases (EC 2.3.1.51) catalyze the conversion of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to phosphatidic acid (PA). LPA and PA are involved in signal transduction and lipid biosynthesis.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

GeneCards Summary for GPAT4 Gene

GPAT4 (Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase 4) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GPAT4 include Complete Generalized Lipodystrophy and Congenital Generalized Lipodystrophy. Among its related pathways are Acyl chain remodelling of PE and Metabolism. An important paralog of this gene is GPAT3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for GPAT4 Gene

  • Converts glycerol-3-phosphate to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid or LPA) by incorporating an acyl moiety at the sn-1 position of the glycerol backbone (PubMed:18238778). Active against both saturated and unsaturated long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs (PubMed:18238778).

Additional gene information for GPAT4 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for GPAT4 Gene

Genomics for GPAT4 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GPAT4 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GPAT4 Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GPAT4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for GPAT4

Genomic Locations for GPAT4 Gene

Genomic Locations for GPAT4 Gene
chr8:41,577,187-41,625,001
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
47,815 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr8:41,434,706-41,482,520
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
47,815 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for GPAT4 Gene

Genes around GPAT4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GPAT4 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GPAT4 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GPAT4 Gene

Proteins for GPAT4 Gene

  • Protein details for GPAT4 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q86UL3-GPAT4_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 4
    Protein Accession:
    Q86UL3
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q2TU73
    • Q86V89

    Protein attributes for GPAT4 Gene

    Size:
    456 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    52071 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for GPAT4 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for GPAT4 Gene

Q86UL3:
  • YSKMIVGN
  • SDIFYFCRKG
  • ILIFPEG
  • LLGISLTVLFTLLLVFIIVPA
  • NHQLYKPYTNGIIAKDPTSLEEEIKEIRRSGSSKALD
  • YAMVGQVHGGLMG
  • WDGGLKR
  • EDAVQFANRVKS
  • CPHVWFERSE
  • FKEEQQK

Post-translational modifications for GPAT4 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn247, Asn327, Asn328, and Asn362
  • Ubiquitination at Lys426
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GPAT4 Gene

Domains & Families for GPAT4 Gene

Gene Families for GPAT4 Gene

Protein Domains for GPAT4 Gene

Blocks:
  • Phospholipid/glycerol acyltransferase
InterPro:
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GPAT4 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase zeta (GPAT4_HUMAN)
  • Testis spermatogenesis apoptosis-related protein 7 (Q2TU73_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q86UL3

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GPAT4_HUMAN :
  • The HXXXXD motif is essential for acyltransferase activity and may constitute the binding site for the phosphate moiety of the glycerol-3-phosphate.
  • Belongs to the 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase family.
Domain:
  • The HXXXXD motif is essential for acyltransferase activity and may constitute the binding site for the phosphate moiety of the glycerol-3-phosphate.
Family:
  • Belongs to the 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GPAT4: view

Function for GPAT4 Gene

Molecular function for GPAT4 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Converts glycerol-3-phosphate to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid or LPA) by incorporating an acyl moiety at the sn-1 position of the glycerol backbone (PubMed:18238778). Active against both saturated and unsaturated long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs (PubMed:18238778).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=an acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = a 1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate + CoA; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:15325, ChEBI:CHEBI:57287, ChEBI:CHEBI:57597, ChEBI:CHEBI:57970, ChEBI:CHEBI:58342; EC=2.3.1.15; Evidence=. ; PhysiologicalDirection=left-to-right; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:15326; Evidence=. ;.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=dodecanoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = 1-dodecanoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + CoA; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:35727, ChEBI:CHEBI:57287, ChEBI:CHEBI:57375, ChEBI:CHEBI:57597, ChEBI:CHEBI:72682; Evidence=. ; PhysiologicalDirection=left-to-right; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:35728; Evidence=. ;.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=hexadecanoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = 1-hexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate + CoA; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:35723, ChEBI:CHEBI:57287, ChEBI:CHEBI:57379, ChEBI:CHEBI:57518, ChEBI:CHEBI:57597; Evidence=. ; PhysiologicalDirection=left-to-right; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:35724; Evidence=. ;.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=octadecanoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = 1-octadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate + CoA; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:37195, ChEBI:CHEBI:57287, ChEBI:CHEBI:57394, ChEBI:CHEBI:57597, ChEBI:CHEBI:74565; Evidence=. ; PhysiologicalDirection=left-to-right; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:37196; Evidence=. ;.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=(9Z)-octadecenoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = 1-(9Z-octadecenoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphate + CoA; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:37199, ChEBI:CHEBI:57287, ChEBI:CHEBI:57387, ChEBI:CHEBI:57597, ChEBI:CHEBI:74544; Evidence=. ; PhysiologicalDirection=left-to-right; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:37200; Evidence=. ;.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=(9Z,12Z)-octadecadienoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = 1-(9Z,12Z)-octadecadienoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate + CoA; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:37203, ChEBI:CHEBI:57287, ChEBI:CHEBI:57383, ChEBI:CHEBI:57597, ChEBI:CHEBI:74547; Evidence=. ; PhysiologicalDirection=left-to-right; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:37204; Evidence=. ;.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GPAT4 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GPAT4 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GPAT4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003841 NOT 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase activity IDA 18238778
GO:0004366 glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase activity TAS --
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
GO:0016746 transferase activity, transferring acyl groups IEA --
GO:0102420 sn-1-glycerol-3-phosphate C16:0-DCA-CoA acyl transferase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPAT4: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GPAT4: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for GPAT4

CRISPR Products

miRNA for GPAT4 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GPAT4

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for GPAT4

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GPAT4

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GPAT4 Gene

Localization for GPAT4 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPAT4 Gene

Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GPAT4 gene
Compartment Confidence
endoplasmic reticulum 5
plasma membrane 2
mitochondrion 2
peroxisome 2
cytosol 2
extracellular 1
cytoskeleton 1
nucleus 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GPAT4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum ISS --
GO:0005789 endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA,IDA 18238778
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane NAS,IEA 18238778
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPAT4: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GPAT4 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GPAT4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GPAT4: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q86UL3-GPAT4_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Phospholipid metabolism; CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis; CDP-diacylglycerol from sn-glycerol 3-phosphate: step 1/3.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GPAT4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002071 glandular epithelial cell maturation IEA --
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006631 fatty acid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006637 acyl-CoA metabolic process IDA 18238778
GO:0006641 triglyceride metabolic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GPAT4: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GPAT4 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GPAT4 Gene

(3) Drugs for GPAT4 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Hexanoyl-CoA Experimental Pharma 0
Propanoyl-CoA Experimental Pharma 0
Coenzyme A Investigational Nutra 0

(50) Additional Compounds for GPAT4 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
(2E)-Decenoyl-CoA
  • (e)-S-2-Decenoate
  • (e)-S-2-Decenoate CoA
  • (e)-S-2-Decenoate coenzyme A
  • (e)-S-2-Decenoic acid
  • 2-trans-Decenoyl-CoA
10018-95-8
(2E)-Dodecenoyl-CoA
1066-12-2
(2E)-Hexadecenoyl-CoA
  • (e)-C16:1 N-14-CoA
  • (e)-Hexadec-2-enoyl-CoA tetraanion
  • (e)-Hexadec-2-enoyl-coenzyme A tetraanion
  • (e)-Hexadec-2-enoyl-coenzyme A(4-)
  • trans-2-Hexadecenoyl-CoA(4-)
4460-95-1
(2E)-Octenoyl-CoA
  • (e)-S-2-Octenoate
  • (e)-S-2-Octenoate CoA
  • (e)-S-2-Octenoate coenzyme A
  • (e)-S-2-Octenoic acid
  • 2,3-trans-Octenoyl coenzyme A
10018-94-7
(2E)-Tetradecenoyl-CoA
  • (2E)-Tetradecenoyl-coenzyme A
  • trans-Tetra-dec-2-enoyl-CoA
  • trans-Tetra-dec-2-enoyl-coa.
  • trans-Tetra-dec-2-enoyl-coenzyme A
  • trans-Tetra-dec-2-enoyl-coenzyme A.
38795-33-4
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GPAT4: view

Transcripts for GPAT4 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GPAT4 Gene

3 REFSEQ mRNAs :
11 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
11 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for GPAT4

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GPAT4

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GPAT4 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GPAT4 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GPAT4

Expression for GPAT4 Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for GPAT4

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GPAT4 Gene:

Q86UL3-GPAT4_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Ubiquitous. High levels in testis. Relatively high level of expression in skeletal muscle and heart. Relatively low level of expression in lung.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GPAT4 Gene

  • Skin(3.4)
  • Nervous system(2.7)
  • Liver(2.4)

No data available for mRNA expression in normal human tissues , mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GPAT4 Gene

Orthologs for GPAT4 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for GPAT4 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia AGPAT6 31 30
  • 99.63 (n)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia AGPAT6 31 30
  • 92.76 (n)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia AGPAT6 31
  • 92 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Agpat6 30
  • 89.18 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Agpat6 31 30
  • 88.6 (n)
OneToOne
Gpat4 17
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia AGPAT6 31 30
  • 88.45 (n)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia AGPAT6 31
  • 49 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves AGPAT6 31 30
  • 82.78 (n)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 31
  • 94 (a)
OneToMany
-- 31
  • 91 (a)
OneToMany
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia agpat6 30
  • 75.79 (n)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii agpat6 31 30
  • 73.9 (n)
OneToOne
wufi89e03 30
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP002084 30
  • 59.28 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG3209 31 30
  • 57.81 (n)
ManyToMany
CG15450 31
  • 36 (a)
ManyToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea acl-4 31 30
  • 57.61 (n)
ManyToMany
acl-5 31
  • 39 (a)
ManyToMany
M79.2 31
  • 25 (a)
ManyToMany
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons GPAT9 30
  • 49.81 (n)
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os07g0531600 30
  • 49.13 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.1550 31
  • 46 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for GPAT4 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GPAT4 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GPAT4 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GPAT4 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GPAT4: view image

Paralogs for GPAT4 Gene

Paralogs for GPAT4 Gene

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for GPAT4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GPAT4: view

Variants for GPAT4 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for GPAT4 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 08 pos Variation AA Info Type
725885 Benign: not provided 41,612,000(+) C/T INTRON_VARIANT
783010 Benign: not provided 41,609,665(+) A/G SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT,FIVE_PRIME_UTR_VARIANT

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for GPAT4 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GPAT4 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3576565 CNV gain 25503493
nsv1077039 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv831299 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for GPAT4 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 16.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.57; 12.21% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GPAT4 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
GPAT4

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GPAT4 Gene

Disorders for GPAT4 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(3) MalaCards diseases for GPAT4 Gene - From: DISEASES

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GPAT4 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for GPAT4

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GPAT4: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GPAT4 Gene

Publications for GPAT4 Gene

  1. AGPAT6 is a novel microsomal glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase. (PMID: 18238778) Chen YQ … Cao G (The Journal of biological chemistry 2008) 2 3 4 23 54
  2. Cloning and identification of the human LPAAT-zeta gene, a novel member of the lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase family. (PMID: 12938015) Li D … Zhao S (Journal of human genetics 2003) 2 3 4 54
  3. Molecular cloning and preliminary function study of a novel human gene, TSARG7, related to spermatogenesis. (PMID: 16625827) Tan XJ … Lu GX (Yi chuan xue bao = Acta genetica Sinica 2006) 3 4 54
  4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 54
  5. The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and transmembrane proteins: a bioinformatics assessment. (PMID: 12975309) Clark HF … Gray A (Genome research 2003) 3 4 54

Products for GPAT4 Gene

Sources for GPAT4 Gene