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Aliases for GNRHR2 Gene

Aliases for GNRHR2 Gene

  • Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Receptor 2 (Pseudogene) 2 3 5
  • Type II GnRH Receptor 3 4
  • GnRH-II-R 3 4
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (Type 2) Receptor 2, Pseudogene 3
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (Type 2) Receptor 2 2
  • GnRH Receptor II 5TM 3
  • GnRH II Receptor 4

External Ids for GNRHR2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GNRHR2 Gene

  • GC01M144030
  • GC01M142096
  • GC01M143236
  • GC01M143258
  • GC01M142998
  • GC01M144221
  • GC01M145509
  • GC01M119475

Summaries for GNRHR2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GNRHR2 Gene

  • In non-hominoid primates and non-mammalian vertebrates, the gonadotropin releasing hormone 2 receptor gene (GnRHR2) encodes a seven-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor. However, in human, the corresponding reading frame contains a premature stop codon, which has been suggested to encode a selenocysteine residue, but there is no solid evidence for selenocysteine incorporation (PMID: 12538601). It appears that the human GnRHR2 transcription occurs but the gene does not likely produce a functional multi-transmembrane protein. A non-transcribed pseudogene of GnRHR2 is located on chromosome 14. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

GeneCards Summary for GNRHR2 Gene

GNRHR2 (Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Receptor 2 (Pseudogene)) is a Pseudogene. Diseases associated with GNRHR2 include Peroxisome Biogenesis Disorder 14B. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Peptide ligand-binding receptors. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include peptide binding and gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNRHR2 Gene

  • Putative receptor for gonadotropin releasing hormone II (GnRH II) which is most probably non-functional.

Tocris Summary for GNRHR2 Gene

  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors are a group of Gq/11-protein-coupled receptors that are divided into two subtypes; GnRH and GnRH2. GnRH receptors are predominantly expressed by pituitary gonadotrophs. GnRH2 is silenced in humans.

Gene Wiki entry for GNRHR2 Gene

Additional gene information for GNRHR2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GNRHR2 Gene

Genomics for GNRHR2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GNRHR2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GNRHR2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH01J145917 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 650.7 -0.2 -191 2.8 HDGF ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B NEUROD1 SIN3A YY1 POLR2B E2F8 ZNF143 GNRHR2 PEX11B ANKRD35 HJV ENSG00000213240 POLR3C LIX1L-AS1 ITGA10 RBM8A
GH01J146034 Promoter/Enhancer 1.9 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 29.5 +118.5 118538 5.6 CLOCK MLX DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF143 ZNF548 HJV GC01P146046 TRE-CTC1-1 PIR58458 TRG-TCC2-1 TRH-GTG1-1 TRK-CTT2-1 POLR3C PIAS3 NBPF20
GH01J145990 Promoter/Enhancer 2.6 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.9 +76.3 76329 10.5 CLOCK MLX FEZF1 DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 SLC30A9 E2F8 NFYC MEF2D TXNIP PIR35110 POLR3C NBPF20 LIX1L-AS1 PIAS3 GPR89A ENSG00000213240 HJV RBM8A
GH01J145954 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 12.1 +37.7 37686 4.2 HDGF PKNOX1 CLOCK SMAD1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A YBX1 DMAP1 YY1 LIX1L LIX1L-AS1 POLR3C RBM8A GNRHR2 PEX11B TXNIP ITGA10 HJV ENSG00000213240
GH01J145959 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 12.4 +43.5 43487 6.2 HDGF PKNOX1 CLOCK SMAD1 MLX ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 LIX1L ENSG00000278431 POLR3GL POLR3C LIX1L-AS1 RBM8A TXNIP PEX11B GNRHR2 ENSG00000213240
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GNRHR2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GNRHR2 gene promoter:
  • Sox9
  • HTF
  • RP58
  • Cart-1
  • POU3F1
  • Egr-2
  • NRF-2
  • AML1a
  • GATA-1

Genomic Locations for GNRHR2 Gene

Genomic Locations for GNRHR2 Gene
6,329 bases
Plus strand
6,325 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GNRHR2 Gene

Genes around GNRHR2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GNRHR2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GNRHR2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GNRHR2 Gene

Proteins for GNRHR2 Gene

  • Protein details for GNRHR2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Putative gonadotropin-releasing hormone II receptor
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • E7EN27
    • Q8TCX8

    Protein attributes for GNRHR2 Gene

    292 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    32537 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=AAL27000.1; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

neXtProt entry for GNRHR2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GNRHR2 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GNRHR2 Gene

Domains & Families for GNRHR2 Gene

Gene Families for GNRHR2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GNRHR2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GNRHR2: view

Function for GNRHR2 Gene

Molecular function for GNRHR2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Putative receptor for gonadotropin releasing hormone II (GnRH II) which is most probably non-functional.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GNRHR2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GNRHR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity IBA --
GO:0004968 gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor activity IBA --
GO:0042277 peptide binding IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNRHR2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GNRHR2: view

Animal Model Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GNRHR2 Gene

Localization for GNRHR2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNRHR2 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GNRHR2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GNRHR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNRHR2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GNRHR2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GNRHR2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GNRHR2: view

Interacting Proteins for GNRHR2 Gene

Selected Interacting proteins: Q96P88-GNRR2_HUMAN for GNRHR2 Gene via IID

Symbol External ID(s) Details

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GNRHR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0032870 cellular response to hormone stimulus IBA --
GO:0097211 cellular response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNRHR2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GNRHR2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GNRHR2 Gene

(17) Drugs for GNRHR2 Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, HMDB, and Tocris

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Nafarelin Approved Pharma Full agonist, Agonist, agonist, Target GnRH receptor agonist 4
Danazol Approved Pharma antagonist, Target, negative modulator 19
Gonadorelin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Pharma agonist, Target 0
Degarelix Approved December of 2008 Pharma Antagonist 0
histrelin Approved Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 0

(3) Additional Compounds for GNRHR2 Gene - From: IUPHAR and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
[<sup>125</sup>I]GnRH II (human)
Full agonist, Agonist

(5) Tocris Compounds for GNRHR2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
AG 045572 Selective GnRH receptor antagonist 263847-55-8
Goserelin acetate GnRH receptor agonist 1233494-97-7
Leuprolide GnRH receptor agonist 53714-56-0
Nafarelin GnRH receptor agonist 76932-56-4
T 98475 GnRH receptor antagonist 199119-18-1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GNRHR2: view

Transcripts for GNRHR2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GNRHR2 Gene

(2) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(9) Additional mRNA sequences :
(15) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(5) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GNRHR2 Gene

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (type 2) receptor 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GNRHR2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GNRHR2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GNRHR2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GNRHR2 Gene

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for GNRHR2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GNRHR2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GNRHR2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GNRHR2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed in many tissues.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GNRHR2 Gene

  • Nervous system(3.8)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GNRHR2: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GNRHR2 Gene

Orthologs for GNRHR2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GNRHR2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia Str.11761 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia gnrhr2-A 33
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.8048 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta GRHR 35
  • 30 (a)
Species where no ortholog for GNRHR2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • cow (Bos Taurus)
  • dog (Canis familiaris)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • mouse (Mus musculus)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for GNRHR2 Gene

Gene Tree for GNRHR2 (if available)
Gene Tree for GNRHR2 (if available)

Paralogs for GNRHR2 Gene

(6) SIMAP similar genes for GNRHR2 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

  • Q2MZ38_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GNRHR2: view

No data available for Paralogs for GNRHR2 Gene

Variants for GNRHR2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GNRHR2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs397515419 pathogenic, Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 14B 145,917,809(+) G/A upstream_transcript_variant
rs60403829 likely-benign, not specified 145,923,296(+) C/CC genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1001365402 -- 145,922,233(+) G/A/T genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1003074831 -- 145,920,519(+) C/T intron_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant
rs1003374254 -- 145,919,300(+) C/T genic_upstream_transcript_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant, upstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GNRHR2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3587419 CNV gain 21293372
nsv1005055 CNV loss 25217958
nsv2710 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv831381 CNV gain 17160897
nsv946264 CNV duplication 23825009

Additional Variant Information for GNRHR2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Variation tolerance for GNRHR2 Gene

Disorders for GNRHR2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for GNRHR2 Gene - From: GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
peroxisome biogenesis disorder 14b
  • pex14b
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Additional Disease Information for GNRHR2

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GNRHR2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GNRHR2 Gene

Publications for GNRHR2 Gene

  1. The genes encoding the type II gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor and the ribonucleoprotein RBM8A in humans overlap in two genomic loci. (PMID: 11707068) Faurholm B … Katz AA (Genomics 2001) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Retention and silencing of prepro-GnRH-II and type II GnRH receptor genes in mammals. (PMID: 19657181) Stewart AJ … Morgan K (Neuroendocrinology 2009) 3 4 22 58
  3. A transcriptionally active human type II gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene homolog overlaps two genes in the antisense orientation on chromosome 1q.12. (PMID: 12538601) Morgan K … Millar RP (Endocrinology 2003) 3 4 22 58
  4. Comprehensive copy number variant (CNV) analysis of neuronal pathways genes in psychiatric disorders identifies rare variants within patients. (PMID: 20398908) Saus E … Estivill X (Journal of psychiatric research 2010) 3 44 58
  5. Identification of new putative susceptibility genes for several psychiatric disorders by association analysis of regulatory and non-synonymous SNPs of 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and neurodevelopment. (PMID: 19086053) Gratacòs M … Psychiatric Genetics Network Group (American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2009) 3 44 58

Products for GNRHR2 Gene

Sources for GNRHR2 Gene

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