This gene is a member of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) gene family. Proteins encoded by members of this gene family are proteolytically cleaved to form neuropeptides which, in part, regulate reproductive functions by stimulating the production and release of the gonadotropins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The human GNRH2 gene is pr... See more...

Aliases for GNRH2 Gene

Aliases for GNRH2 Gene

  • Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone 2 2 3 5
  • Progonadoliberin-2 2 3 4
  • Progonadoliberin II 3 4
  • Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone II 3
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone 2 2
  • GnRH-Associated Peptide II 3
  • GnRH-Associated Peptide 2 3
  • Gonadoliberin II 3
  • Gonadoliberin-2 3
  • Luliberin II 3
  • GnRH-II 3
  • LH-RHII 3

External Ids for GNRH2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GNRH2 Gene

  • GC20P003012
  • GC20P002972
  • GC20P003019
  • GC20P003033
  • GC20P003038
  • GC20P003043
  • GC20P003048

Summaries for GNRH2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GNRH2 Gene

  • This gene is a member of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) gene family. Proteins encoded by members of this gene family are proteolytically cleaved to form neuropeptides which, in part, regulate reproductive functions by stimulating the production and release of the gonadotropins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The human GNRH2 gene is predicted to encode a preproprotein from which a mature neuropeptide of 10 amino acids is cleaved. However, while the human genome retains the sequence for a functional GNRH2 decapeptide, translation of the human GNRH2 gene has not yet been demonstrated and the GNRH2 gene of chimpanzees, gorilla, and Sumatran orangutan have a premature stop at codon eight of the decapeptide sequence which suggests GNRH2 was a pseudogene in the hominid lineage. The GNRH2 gene is also believed to be a pseudogene in many other mammalian species such as mouse and cow. The receptor for this gene (GNRHR2) is predicted to be a pseudogene in human as well as many other mammalian species. The closely related GNRH1 and GNRHR1 genes are functional in human and other mammals and are generally functional in vertebrates. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2019]

GeneCards Summary for GNRH2 Gene

GNRH2 (Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GNRH2 include Colon Mucinous Adenocarcinoma and Laryngitis. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and ERK Signaling. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include hormone activity. An important paralog of this gene is GNRH1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for GNRH2 Gene

  • Stimulates the secretion of gonadotropins; it stimulates the secretion of both luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones.

Gene Wiki entry for GNRH2 Gene

Additional gene information for GNRH2 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for GNRH2 Gene

Genomics for GNRH2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GNRH2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GNRH2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH20J003041 Promoter/Enhancer 1.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 507.1 +3.6 3617 2.6 ZNF341 FOXA2 NR2F2 RBM22 ZFHX2 RXRA MAX HNF4A REST AGO2 GNRH2 MRPS26
GH20J003044 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 12.2 +7.1 7140 3.2 ZBTB40 ZNF217 SIN3A NRF1 TCF12 POLR2G PHF8 SIX5 ZFX ZIC2 MRPS26 ZNF343 PCED1A VPS16 SNRPB ENSG00000229539 ADAM33 GNRH2 MAVS ITPA
GH20J003887 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 11.8 +851.1 851091 5.5 ZBTB40 EP300 CTCF ZSCAN5C SIN3A NRF1 TCF12 MYC USF1 POLR2G ENSG00000229539 PANK2 GNRH2 MAVS UBOX5 ADAM33 RNF24 PRND MIR103A2
GH20J002651 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 11.8 -385.9 -385919 4.3 FOXK2 HNRNPK ZBTB40 SIN3A NRF1 MYC POLR2G USF1 SP1 GTF2E2 NOP56 JX046909 MIR1292 SNORA51 SNORD110 lnc-IDH3B-2 piR-35059 ZNF343 VPS16 SNRPB
GH20J003101 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 12.3 +63.7 63655 3.4 FOXK2 POLR2G NCOR1 KDM6A TCF7 FOXA1 ZBTB25 SMARCC2 SKI TEAD1 LZTS3 MRPS26 GNRH2 OXT UBOX5-AS1 lnc-OXT-2
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GNRH2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for GNRH2

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GNRH2 gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • ATF-2
  • c-Jun
  • CREB
  • deltaCREB

Genomic Locations for GNRH2 Gene

Genomic Locations for GNRH2 Gene
chr20:3,039,061-3,045,860
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
6,800 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr20:3,024,268-3,026,393
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
2,126 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for GNRH2 Gene

Genes around GNRH2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GNRH2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GNRH2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GNRH2 Gene

Proteins for GNRH2 Gene

  • Protein details for GNRH2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    O43555-GON2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Progonadoliberin-2
    Protein Accession:
    O43555
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q14C68
    • Q14C69
    • Q9BYN9
    • Q9BYP0

    Protein attributes for GNRH2 Gene

    Size:
    120 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    12918 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for GNRH2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for GNRH2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GNRH2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for GNRH2 Gene

Protein Products

  • Abcam proteins for GNRH2

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GNRH2 Gene

Domains & Families for GNRH2 Gene

Gene Families for GNRH2 Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for GNRH2 Gene

InterPro:
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GNRH2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Progonadoliberin II (GON2_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

O43555

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GON2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the GnRH family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the GnRH family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GNRH2: view

Function for GNRH2 Gene

Molecular function for GNRH2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Stimulates the secretion of gonadotropins; it stimulates the secretion of both luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
gonadotropin releasing hormone 2,mesencephalic form,expressed in midbrain,kidney,bone marrow prostate,including a GNRH-associated peptide

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GNRH2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GNRH2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005179 hormone activity TAS 9419371
GO:0005183 gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone activity IBA 21873635
GO:0031530 gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor binding IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNRH2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GNRH2: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GNRH2 Gene

Localization for GNRH2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNRH2 Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GNRH2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 2
plasma membrane 1
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1
cytosol 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GNRH2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNRH2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GNRH2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GNRH2 Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for GNRH2 Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts
.85
.85
.84
.84
.74
.72
.66
.65
.64
.62
.61
.60
.57
.57
2 GPCR Pathway
.73
.73
.62
.59
.58
.58
.55
3 ERK Signaling
.61
.61
.58
.51
.49
4 Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency
.61
.61
.59
.48
5 CREB Pathway
.68
.68
.63
.50
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GNRH2: view

Pathways by source for GNRH2 Gene

56 Qiagen pathways for GNRH2 Gene
  • 14-3-3 Induced Intracellular Signaling
  • Actin-Based Motility by Rho Family GTPases
  • Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA
  • Activation of PKA through GPCR
  • Activation of PKC through GPCR

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GNRH2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000003 reproduction IBA 21873635
GO:0007165 signal transduction TAS 9419371
GO:0007186 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0007275 multicellular organism development IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNRH2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GNRH2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GNRH2 Gene

(7) Drugs for GNRH2 Gene - From: ApexBio and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Goserelin Approved Pharma Full agonist, Agonist GnRH receptor agonist 277
Alarelin Acetate Pharma Synthetic GnRH agonist 0
GnRH Associated Peptide (GAP) (1-13), human Pharma Asp-Ala-Glu-Asn-Leu-Ile-Asp-Ser-Phe-Gln-Glu-Ile-Val 0

(2) Additional Compounds for GNRH2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs

(3) ApexBio Compounds for GNRH2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Alarelin Acetate Synthetic GnRH agonist 79561-22-1
GnRH Associated Peptide (GAP) (1-13), human Asp-Ala-Glu-Asn-Leu-Ile-Asp-Ser-Phe-Gln-Glu-Ile-Val 100111-07-7
Goserelin Acetate 65807-02-5
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GNRH2: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for GNRH2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GNRH2 Gene

4 REFSEQ mRNAs :
7 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
4 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GNRH2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GNRH2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GNRH2

Expression for GNRH2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for GNRH2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GNRH2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Cerebellum (x5.1) and Brain - Cerebellar Hemisphere (x4.9).

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for GNRH2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GNRH2 Gene:

Hs.129715

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GNRH2 Gene:

O43555-GON2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Midbrain; expressed at significantly higher levels outside the brain (up to 30-fold), particularly in the kidney, bone marrow and prostate.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GNRH2 Gene

  • Nervous system(2.7)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GNRH2: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GNRH2 Gene

Orthologs for GNRH2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of mammals.

Orthologs for GNRH2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GNRH2 31 30
  • 97.3 (n)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GNRH2 30
  • 74.19 (n)
Species where no ortholog for GNRH2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • dog (Canis familiaris)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • mouse (Mus musculus)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for GNRH2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GNRH2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GNRH2 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GNRH2: view image

Paralogs for GNRH2 Gene

Paralogs for GNRH2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GNRH2: view

Variants for GNRH2 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for GNRH2 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 20 pos Variation AA Info Type
724371 Likely Benign: not provided 3,045,705(+) G/GCCCCT FRAMESHIFT_VARIANT
769990 Benign: not provided 3,044,743(+) C/T SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT
771047 Benign: not provided 3,045,699(+) A/AGCCCC FRAMESHIFT_VARIANT
786673 Benign: not provided 3,044,684(+) G/A MISSENSE_VARIANT,INTRON_VARIANT
rs6051545 - p.Ala16Val

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for GNRH2 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GNRH2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1057187 CNV gain 25217958
nsv482064 CNV gain 20164927
nsv585276 CNV gain 21841781
nsv833896 CNV loss 17160897
nsv833897 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for GNRH2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 74.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 8.17; 84.77% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GNRH2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
GNRH2

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNRH2 Gene

Disorders for GNRH2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(3) MalaCards diseases for GNRH2 Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
colon mucinous adenocarcinoma
  • colonic mucinous adenocarcinoma
laryngitis
  • acute laryngitis
ovarian cancer
  • ovarian cancer, somatic
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GNRH2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for GNRH2

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GNRH2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GNRH2 Gene

Publications for GNRH2 Gene

  1. Second gene for gonadotropin-releasing hormone in humans. (PMID: 9419371) White RB … Fernald RD (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1998) 2 3 4 23 54
  2. The neuropeptides GnRH-II and GnRH-I are produced by human T cells and trigger laminin receptor gene expression, adhesion, chemotaxis and homing to specific organs. (PMID: 12447356) Chen A … Levite M (Nature medicine 2002) 2 3 23 54
  3. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PMID: 20379614) Rose JE … Uhl GR (Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.) 2010) 3 41 54
  4. Expression of hCG and GnRHs and their receptors in endometrial carcinoma and hyperplasia. (PMID: 20130508) Jankowska AG … Warchol PJ (International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society 2010) 3 23 54
  5. GnRH I and II up-regulate MMP-26 expression through the JNK pathway in human cytotrophoblasts. (PMID: 20074375) Liu J … Wang YL (Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E 2010) 3 23 54

Products for GNRH2 Gene

Sources for GNRH2 Gene