This gene encodes a preproprotein that is proteolytically processed to generate a peptide that is a member of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) family of peptides. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, at least one of which is secreted and then cleaved to generate gonadoliberin-1 and GnRH-associated peptide 1. Gonadoliberin-1 stimulates the relea... See more...

Aliases for GNRH1 Gene

Aliases for GNRH1 Gene

  • Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone 1 2 3 5
  • Progonadoliberin-1 2 3 4
  • Leuteinizing-Releasing Hormone 2 3
  • GNRH 3 4
  • LHRH 3 4
  • GRH 3 4
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone 1 (Luteinizing-Releasing Hormone) 3
  • Prolactin Release-Inhibiting Factor 3
  • GnRH-Associated Peptide 1 3
  • Progonadoliberin I 4
  • Luliberin I 3
  • LNRH 3

External Ids for GNRH1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GNRH1 Gene

  • GRH
  • GNRH
  • LHRH

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GNRH1 Gene

  • GC08M025048
  • GC08M025630
  • GC08M025298
  • GC08M025332
  • GC08M023821
  • GC08M025276

Summaries for GNRH1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GNRH1 Gene

  • This gene encodes a preproprotein that is proteolytically processed to generate a peptide that is a member of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) family of peptides. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, at least one of which is secreted and then cleaved to generate gonadoliberin-1 and GnRH-associated peptide 1. Gonadoliberin-1 stimulates the release of luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormones, which are important for reproduction. Mutations in this gene are associated with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2015]

GeneCards Summary for GNRH1 Gene

GNRH1 (Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GNRH1 include Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism 12 With Or Without Anosmia and Normosmic Congenital Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and ERK Signaling. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include hormone activity and gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone activity. An important paralog of this gene is GNRH2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for GNRH1 Gene

  • Stimulates the secretion of gonadotropins; it stimulates the secretion of both luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones.

Gene Wiki entry for GNRH1 Gene

Additional gene information for GNRH1 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for GNRH1 Gene

Genomics for GNRH1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GNRH1 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GNRH1 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH08J025424 Promoter 0.4 EPDnew 500.7 +0.8 759 0.1 PRDM6 GNRH1 piR-35002-104 RF00017-6895
GH08J025422 Enhancer 0.3 Ensembl 500.7 +1.9 1939 1 REST JUN GNRH1 KCTD9 piR-35002-104 RF00017-6895
GH08J025453 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 22.6 -32.4 -32412 7.1 EP300 ZBTB40 ZNF217 ZSCAN5C SIN3A NRF1 TCF12 POLR2G USF1 SP1 KCTD9 CDCA2 lnc-GNRH1-3 GNRH1 NEFM ENSG00000253476 RF00017-6895
GH08J025997 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl dbSUPER 30.4 -573.8 -573760 1.2 ZSCAN5C ZNF639 ZNF10 ZIC2 ZBTB10 ZNF423 ZNF623 TRIM28 KLF7 ATF2 GNRH1 ENSG00000253476 EBF2 KCTD9 RF00017-6900 RF00017-6901
GH08J025329 Enhancer 0.8 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 18.4 +96.1 96139 1.4 MAFK NR2F2 NFE2 RXRA HNF4A GNRH1 CDCA2 KCTD9 DOCK5 piR-43105-631 hsa-miR-5096-110 RF00017-6895
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GNRH1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for GNRH1

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GNRH1 gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • ATF-2
  • c-Jun
  • CREB
  • deltaCREB
  • GR
  • GR-alpha
  • GR-beta
  • Sp1

Genomic Locations for GNRH1 Gene

Genomic Locations for GNRH1 Gene
5,783 bases
Minus strand
5,783 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GNRH1 Gene

Genes around GNRH1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GNRH1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GNRH1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GNRH1 Gene

Proteins for GNRH1 Gene

  • Protein details for GNRH1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A0AVP0

    Protein attributes for GNRH1 Gene

    92 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    10380 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • The 3D-structure was determined for the synthetic analog Triptorelin.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GNRH1 Gene

neXtProt entry for GNRH1 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GNRH1 Gene

No Post-translational modifications

Other Protein References for GNRH1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GNRH1 Gene

Domains & Families for GNRH1 Gene

Gene Families for GNRH1 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for GNRH1 Gene

  • Gonadoliberin I precursor signature

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GNRH1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Progonadoliberin I (GON1_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the GnRH family.
  • Belongs to the GnRH family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GNRH1: view

Function for GNRH1 Gene

Molecular function for GNRH1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Stimulates the secretion of gonadotropins; it stimulates the secretion of both luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
gonadotropin releasing hormone 1,decapeptide expressed in hypothalamus,releasing form,involved in the regulation of reproduction,including a GNRH-associated peptide

LifeMap Function Summary for GNRH1 Gene

During embryonic development, GNRH1 as signaling molecule is secreted from the following cells
It affects the following cells:

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GNRH1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GNRH1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005179 hormone activity TAS 2863757
GO:0005183 gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone activity TAS,IBA 21873635
GO:0031530 gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor binding IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNRH1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GNRH1: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for GNRH1 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

miRNA for GNRH1 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GNRH1

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GNRH1 Gene

Localization for GNRH1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNRH1 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GNRH1 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
mitochondrion 3
nucleus 3
endoplasmic reticulum 3
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 2
cytosol 2
peroxisome 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GNRH1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IBA,IEA 21873635
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005798 Golgi-associated vesicle IEA --
GO:0030425 dendrite IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNRH1: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GNRH1 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GNRH1 Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for GNRH1 Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts
2 GPCR Pathway
3 ERK Signaling
4 Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency
5 CREB Pathway
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GNRH1: view

Pathways by source for GNRH1 Gene

56 Qiagen pathways for GNRH1 Gene
  • 14-3-3 Induced Intracellular Signaling
  • Actin-Based Motility by Rho Family GTPases
  • Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA
  • Activation of PKA through GPCR
  • Activation of PKC through GPCR

SIGNOR curated interactions for GNRH1 Gene

Is activated by:
Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GNRH1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000003 reproduction IBA 21873635
GO:0007165 signal transduction TAS 8692981
GO:0007186 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0007267 cell-cell signaling TAS 1310542
GO:0007275 multicellular organism development TAS 2867548
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNRH1: view

Drugs & Compounds for GNRH1 Gene

(92) Drugs for GNRH1 Gene - From: ApexBio, DGIdb, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Goserelin Approved Pharma Full agonist, Agonist GnRH receptor agonist 277
GnRH pharmaccine Investigational Pharma 0
leuprolide acetate Pharma Pituitary GnRH receptors agonist 0
Alarelin Acetate Pharma Synthetic GnRH agonist 0
GnRH Associated Peptide (GAP) (1-13), human Pharma Asp-Ala-Glu-Asn-Leu-Ile-Asp-Ser-Phe-Gln-Glu-Ile-Val 0

(36) Additional Compounds for GNRH1 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs

(5) ApexBio Compounds for GNRH1 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Alarelin Acetate Synthetic GnRH agonist 79561-22-1
GnRH Associated Peptide (GAP) (1-13), human Asp-Ala-Glu-Asn-Leu-Ile-Asp-Ser-Phe-Gln-Glu-Ile-Val 100111-07-7
Goserelin Acetate 65807-02-5
Leuprolide Acetate Pituitary GnRH receptors agonist 74381-53-6
Luteinizing hormone releasing hormone human acetate salt (LHRH) 71447-49-9
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GNRH1: view

Transcripts for GNRH1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GNRH1 Gene

7 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
2 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GNRH1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GNRH1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for

Expression for GNRH1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for GNRH1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for GNRH1

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GNRH1 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GNRH1 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.7)
  • Blood(2.6)
  • Adrenal gland(2.3)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GNRH1 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • endocrine
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • reproductive
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
  • urinary
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cerebellum
  • cranial nerve
  • eye
  • face
  • head
  • hypothalamus
  • jaw
  • lip
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • mouth
  • neck
  • nose
  • olfactory bulb
  • pharynx
  • pituitary gland
  • skull
  • breast
  • chest wall
  • clavicle
  • rib
  • rib cage
  • scapula
  • sternum
  • kidney
  • fallopian tube
  • ovary
  • pelvis
  • penis
  • prostate
  • testicle
  • uterus
  • vagina
  • vas deferens
  • vulva
  • ankle
  • arm
  • digit
  • elbow
  • femur
  • fibula
  • finger
  • foot
  • forearm
  • hand
  • hip
  • humerus
  • knee
  • lower limb
  • radius
  • shin
  • shoulder
  • thigh
  • tibia
  • toe
  • ulna
  • upper limb
  • wrist
  • hair
  • peripheral nervous system
  • skin
  • spinal column
  • vertebrae
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GNRH1: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GNRH1 Gene

Orthologs for GNRH1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GNRH1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GNRH1 31 30
  • 99.28 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GNRH1 31 30
  • 82.25 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gnrh1 17 31 30
  • 80.15 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GNRH1 31 30
  • 78.26 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gnrh1 30
  • 78.26 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GNRH1 31
  • 70 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GNRH1 31
  • 50 (a)
Species where no ortholog for GNRH1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for GNRH1 Gene

Gene Tree for GNRH1 (if available)
Gene Tree for GNRH1 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GNRH1: view image

Paralogs for GNRH1 Gene

Paralogs for GNRH1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GNRH1: view

Variants for GNRH1 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for GNRH1 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 08 pos Variation AA Info Type
734969 Benign: not provided 25,423,190(-) C/G MISSENSE_VARIANT
773401 Benign: not provided 25,419,460(-) C/G MISSENSE_VARIANT
788272 Benign: not provided 25,421,627(-) G/A SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT
rs17790824 Uncertain Significance: Isolated GnRH Deficiency 25,423,813(-) A/G FIVE_PRIME_UTR_VARIANT,INTRON_VARIANT
rs368837931 Conflicting Interpretations: Isolated GnRH Deficiency; not provided 25,421,633(-) T/C SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for GNRH1 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GNRH1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv7148n100 CNV gain 25217958
esv2759606 CNV loss 17122850
esv3616666 OTHER inversion 21293372
nsv1031153 CNV gain 25217958
nsv6125 CNV insertion 18451855

Variation tolerance for GNRH1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 80.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.38; 63.49% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GNRH1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNRH1 Gene

Disorders for GNRH1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(120) MalaCards diseases for GNRH1 Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GNRH1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 12 with or without anosmia (HH12) [MIM:614841]: A disorder characterized by absent or incomplete sexual maturation by the age of 18 years, in conjunction with low levels of circulating gonadotropins and testosterone and no other abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. In some cases, it is associated with non-reproductive phenotypes, such as anosmia, cleft palate, and sensorineural hearing loss. Anosmia or hyposmia is related to the absence or hypoplasia of the olfactory bulbs and tracts. Hypogonadism is due to deficiency in gonadotropin-releasing hormone and probably results from a failure of embryonic migration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-synthesizing neurons. In the presence of anosmia, idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is referred to as Kallmann syndrome, whereas in the presence of a normal sense of smell, it has been termed normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH). {ECO:0000269 PubMed:19535795, ECO:0000269 PubMed:23643382}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting distinct genetic loci, including the gene represented in this entry. The genetics of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism involves various modes of transmission. Oligogenic inheritance has been reported in some patients carrying mutations in GNRH1 as well as in other HH-associated genes including PROKR2 and FGFR1 (PubMed:23643382). {ECO:0000269 PubMed:23643382}.

Additional Disease Information for GNRH1

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GNRH1: view

No data available for Genatlas for GNRH1 Gene

Publications for GNRH1 Gene

  1. Genetic polymorphisms of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes and risk of breast cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). (PMID: 19640273) Canzian F … Ziegler RG (BMC cancer 2009) 3 23 41 54
  2. Characterization of cDNA for precursor of human luteinizing hormone releasing hormone. (PMID: 6090951) Seeburg PH … Adelman JP (Nature 1984) 2 3 4 54
  3. A large-scale candidate gene association study of age at menarche and age at natural menopause. (PMID: 20734064) He C … Hunter DJ (Human genetics 2010) 3 41 54
  4. L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha subunit 1C is a novel candidate gene associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism: an application of haplotype-based analysis for multiple linked single nucleotide polymorphisms. (PMID: 20424473) Yokoyama K … Hosoya T (Nephron. Clinical practice 2010) 3 41 54
  5. Comprehensive analysis of common genetic variation in 61 genes related to steroid hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I metabolism and breast cancer risk in the NCI breast and prostate cancer cohort consortium. (PMID: 20634197) Canzian F … Feigelson HS (Human molecular genetics 2010) 3 41 54

Products for GNRH1 Gene

Sources for GNRH1 Gene