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Aliases for GNGT2 Gene

Aliases for GNGT2 Gene

  • G Protein Subunit Gamma Transducin 2 2 3 5
  • Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein (G Protein), Gamma Transducing Activity Polypeptide 2 2 3
  • Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein Gamma Transducing Activity Polypeptide 2 3 4
  • G Gamma-C 3 4
  • G-GAMMA-8 3 4
  • G-Gamma-9 3 4
  • GNGT8 3 4
  • GNG9 3 4
  • GNG8 3 4
  • Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) Subunit Gamma-T2 3
  • Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein Gamma 9 3
  • G Protein Cone Gamma 8 Subunit 3
  • Gamma-T2 Subunit 3
  • G-GAMMA-C 3

External Ids for GNGT2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GNGT2 Gene

  • GC17M046994
  • GC17M049763
  • GC17M047626
  • GC17M047758
  • GC17M044638
  • GC17M047283
  • GC17M042649

Summaries for GNGT2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GNGT2 Gene

  • Phototransduction in rod and cone photoreceptors is regulated by groups of signaling proteins. The encoded protein is thought to play a crucial role in cone phototransduction. It belongs to the G protein gamma family and localized specifically in cones. Several transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

GeneCards Summary for GNGT2 Gene

GNGT2 (G Protein Subunit Gamma Transducin 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Presynaptic function of Kainate receptors and Translation Translation regulation by Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include GTPase activity and signal transducer activity. An important paralog of this gene is GNG11.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNGT2 Gene

  • Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction.

Tocris Summary for GNGT2 Gene

  • Heterotrimeric G proteins are membrane bound GTPases that are linked to 7-TM receptors. Each G protein contains an alpha-, beta- and gamma-subunit and is bound to GDP in the 'off' state. Ligand binding causes a receptor conformational change, detaching the G protein and switching it 'on'.

Gene Wiki entry for GNGT2 Gene

Additional gene information for GNGT2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GNGT2 Gene

Genomics for GNGT2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GNGT2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GNGT2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH17I049208 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 557.2 -4.0 -3981 12.1 HDGF PKNOX1 SMAD1 YBX1 IRF4 ZNF207 ATF7 FOS RUNX3 JUNB ABI3 GNGT2 B4GALNT2 CALCOCO2 UBE2Z PIR31803
GH17I049387 Enhancer 1.6 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 9.3 -179.0 -179041 4.5 ATF1 PKNOX1 ZNF133 FEZF1 DMAP1 GTF3C2 TCF12 GATA2 FOS ATF7 ZNF652 SPOP LOC102724596 ENSG00000207127 PHB ABI3 SNF8 PHOSPHO1 UBE2Z GNGT2
GH17I049340 Enhancer 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.7 -131.7 -131716 3.5 BMI1 YBX1 BATF IRF4 ZNF335 ZNF366 ATF7 BCLAF1 IKZF2 RUNX3 ZNF652 RPL21P124 ENSG00000250186 PHB ABI3 GNGT2 FLJ40194 GC17M049339 PIR41840
GH17I049251 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 11 -41.7 -41735 1.9 HDAC1 HDGF PKNOX1 NFIB NFXL1 BMI1 FOS ATF7 ZNF263 CEBPB PHOSPHO1 ABI3 GNGT2 ZNF652 FLJ40194 GC17P049267
GH17I049106 Enhancer 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE 10 +103.0 102952 3 ATF1 FOXA2 MLX ARNT ARID4B NEUROD1 SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF48 ETS1 B4GALNT2 ENSG00000238804 ABI3 GNGT2 B4GALNT2P1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around GNGT2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GNGT2 gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for GNGT2 Gene

Genomic Locations for GNGT2 Gene
chr17:49,202,791-49,210,574
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
7,784 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr17:47,280,153-47,287,936
(GRCh37/hg19)

Genomic View for GNGT2 Gene

Genes around GNGT2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GNGT2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GNGT2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GNGT2 Gene

Proteins for GNGT2 Gene

  • Protein details for GNGT2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    O14610-GBGT2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-T2
    Protein Accession:
    O14610
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R746
    • D3DTW5

    Protein attributes for GNGT2 Gene

    Size:
    69 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    7747 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma.

neXtProt entry for GNGT2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GNGT2 Gene

No Post-translational modifications

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GNGT2 Gene

Domains & Families for GNGT2 Gene

Gene Families for GNGT2 Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for GNGT2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GNGT2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

O14610

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GBGT2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the G protein gamma family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the G protein gamma family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GNGT2: view

Function for GNGT2 Gene

Molecular function for GNGT2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein) gamma subunit,retinal cone phosphoreceptor specific
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GNGT2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GNGT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003924 GTPase activity NAS 9286705
GO:0004871 signal transducer activity NAS 9286705
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNGT2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GNGT2: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for GNGT2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GNGT2

Inhibitory RNA Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GNGT2 Gene

Localization for GNGT2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNGT2 Gene

Cell membrane; Lipid-anchor; Cytoplasmic side.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GNGT2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
cytosol 3
nucleus 2
extracellular 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GNGT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005834 heterotrimeric G-protein complex NAS 9286705
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNGT2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GNGT2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GNGT2 Gene

SuperPathways for GNGT2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GNGT2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GNGT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway NAS 9286705
GO:0007602 phototransduction NAS 9286705
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNGT2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GNGT2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GNGT2 Gene

(3) Drugs for GNGT2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Guanosine diphosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Guanosine monophosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Guanosine triphosphate Experimental Pharma 0

(5) Additional Compounds for GNGT2 Gene - From: Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
G-Protein antagonist peptide
143675-79-0

(5) Tocris Compounds for GNGT2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
[D-Trp7,9,10]-Substance P Inhibits M1 ACh receptor activation of Gq/11 89430-38-6
G-Protein antagonist peptide Inhibits G protein activation by GPCRs 143675-79-0
Gue 1654 Selective inhibitor of OXE-R Gbetagamma signaling 397290-30-1
Mastoparan Activates Gi and Go 72093-21-1
SCH 202676 hydrobromide Inhibitor of ligand binding to G-protein-coupled receptors 265980-25-4
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GNGT2: view

Transcripts for GNGT2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GNGT2 Gene

Guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma transducing activity polypeptide 2:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GNGT2 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d · 6e
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - -
SP3: -
SP4:
SP5:

Relevant External Links for GNGT2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GNGT2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GNGT2

Expression for GNGT2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GNGT2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GNGT2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x7.3) and Spleen (x5.9).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GNGT2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Retina (66.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GNGT2 Gene



NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GNGT2 Gene:

GNGT2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GNGT2 Gene:

Hs.181781

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GNGT2 Gene:

O14610-GBGT2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Retinal cones.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GNGT2 Gene

  • Eye(4.3)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GNGT2: view

Primer Products

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GNGT2 Gene

Orthologs for GNGT2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GNGT2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GNGT2 33 34
  • 100 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GNGT2 33 34
  • 87.92 (n)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GNGT2 33 34
  • 87.44 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gngt2 33 16 34
  • 85.02 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gngt2 33
  • 84.54 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GNGT2 34
  • 74 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves LOC100859179 33
  • 74.4 (n)
GNGT2 34
  • 72 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GNGT2 34
  • 72 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gngt2.1 33
  • 68.6 (n)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gngt2a 33 34
  • 70.05 (n)
gngt2b 34
  • 55 (a)
OneToMany
gngt2 33
Species where no ortholog for GNGT2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GNGT2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GNGT2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GNGT2 (if available)

Paralogs for GNGT2 Gene

Paralogs for GNGT2 Gene

(10) SIMAP similar genes for GNGT2 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GNGT2: view

Variants for GNGT2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GNGT2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000077593 -- 49,211,711(-) C/A upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000722379 -- 49,205,748(-) G/A downstream_transcript_variant
rs1001008774 -- 49,207,126(-) C/A/T intron_variant
rs1001395315 -- 49,208,863(-) C/T 5_prime_UTR_variant
rs1001609271 -- 49,211,141(-) G/A upstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GNGT2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv2074 CNV insertion 18451855

Variation tolerance for GNGT2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 66.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.81; 47.64% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GNGT2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
GNGT2

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNGT2 Gene

Disorders for GNGT2 Gene

Additional Disease Information for GNGT2

No disorders were found for GNGT2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GNGT2 Gene

Publications for GNGT2 Gene

  1. Gene structure and chromosome localization of the G gamma c subunit of human cone G-protein (GNGT2). (PMID: 9286705) Ong OC … Fung BK (Genomics 1997) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 58
  3. Identification of a region in G protein gamma subunits conserved across species but hypervariable among subunit isoforms. (PMID: 11714923) Cook LA … Hildebrandt JD (Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society 2001) 3 4 58
  4. SR protein kinases promote splicing of nonconsensus introns. (PMID: 26167880) Lipp JJ … Guthrie C (Nature structural & molecular biology 2015) 3 58
  5. Identification of 23 new prostate cancer susceptibility loci using the iCOGS custom genotyping array. (PMID: 23535732) Eeles RA … Easton DF (Nature genetics 2013) 3 58

Products for GNGT2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for GNGT2

Sources for GNGT2 Gene

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