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Aliases for GNG4 Gene

Aliases for GNG4 Gene

  • G Protein Subunit Gamma 4 2 3 5
  • Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein (G Protein), Gamma 4 2 3
  • Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) Subunit Gamma-4 3
  • Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein 4 3
  • GNGT4 4

External Ids for GNG4 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GNG4 Gene

  • GC01M233846
  • GC01M231167
  • GC01M232010
  • GC01M232755
  • GC01M232040
  • GC01M235710
  • GC01M206162

Summaries for GNG4 Gene

GeneCards Summary for GNG4 Gene

GNG4 (G Protein Subunit Gamma 4) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Akt Signaling and Presynaptic function of Kainate receptors. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include obsolete signal transducer activity. An important paralog of this gene is GNG2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNG4 Gene

  • Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction.

Tocris Summary for GNG4 Gene

  • Heterotrimeric G proteins are membrane bound GTPases that are linked to 7-TM receptors. Each G protein contains an alpha-, beta- and gamma-subunit and is bound to GDP in the 'off' state. Ligand binding causes a receptor conformational change, detaching the G protein and switching it 'on'.

Gene Wiki entry for GNG4 Gene

Additional gene information for GNG4 Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GNG4 Gene

Genomics for GNG4 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GNG4 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GNG4 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH01J235648 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 656.1 +0.7 719 2.8 PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 ZNF143 SP3 GNG4 ENSG00000273058 ENSG00000230325 RPS21P1 HEATR1 ARID4B LOC100131725
GH01J234968 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11 +671.7 671737 21.3 MLX FEZF1 DMAP1 YBX1 IRF4 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF143 ENSG00000258082 ARID4B GGPS1 RPS21P1 IRF2BP2 LOC102724100 LOC105373206 LDHAP2 LOC101927851 ENSG00000230404
GH01J236280 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 11 -630.9 -630916 2.3 HDGF ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 ZNF2 YY1 POLR2B ZNF213 ZNF143 KLF13 ERO1B ARID4B ENSG00000273058 ENSG00000230325 GGPS1 GNG4 HEATR1 RPS21P1 RNU2-70P
GH01J235971 Promoter/Enhancer 1.9 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.1 -321.4 -321366 2.1 MLX ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 ZNF48 YY1 ZNF121 ZNF213 ZNF416 ENSG00000229291 LOC105373212 RNU5E-2P GNG4 GPR137B
GH01J235641 Enhancer 1.2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 14.2 +8.1 8090 2.1 KLF1 JUN KLF17 SIN3A BATF ZIC2 FOSL1 ZFHX2 FOXK2 POLR2A ARID4B ENSG00000273058 ENSG00000230325 HEATR1 RPS21P1 GNG4 LYST RBM34 LOC100131725
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GNG4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GNG4 gene promoter:
  • FOXF2
  • HNF-3beta
  • RSRFC4
  • IRF-2
  • AML1a

Genomic Locations for GNG4 Gene

Genomic Locations for GNG4 Gene
103,070 bases
Minus strand
103,070 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GNG4 Gene

Genes around GNG4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GNG4 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GNG4 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GNG4 Gene

Proteins for GNG4 Gene

  • Protein details for GNG4 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-4
    Protein Accession:

    Protein attributes for GNG4 Gene

    75 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    8389 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma. Interacts with beta-1 and beta-2, but not with beta-3 (PubMed:7665596). Interacts with KCNK1 (By similarity).

neXtProt entry for GNG4 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GNG4 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GNG4 Gene

Domains & Families for GNG4 Gene

Gene Families for GNG4 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for GNG4 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G protein gamma family.
  • Belongs to the G protein gamma family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GNG4: view

Function for GNG4 Gene

Molecular function for GNG4 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GNG4 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GNG4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 23021213
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNG4: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GNG4: view

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GNG4 Gene

Localization for GNG4 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNG4 Gene

Cell membrane; Lipid-anchor; Cytoplasmic side.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GNG4 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 4
cytosol 3
mitochondrion 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GNG4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005834 heterotrimeric G-protein complex IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome HDA 23533145
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNG4: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GNG4 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GNG4 Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 Development Angiotensin activation of ERK
2 ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 12
3 fMLP Pathway
4 G-Beta Gamma Signaling
5 Presynaptic function of Kainate receptors
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GNG4: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GNG4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0008277 regulation of G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway TAS 7665596
GO:0030308 negative regulation of cell growth IMP 15824735
GO:0071377 cellular response to glucagon stimulus TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNG4: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GNG4 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GNG4 Gene

(3) Drugs for GNG4 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Guanosine diphosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Guanosine monophosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Guanosine triphosphate Experimental Pharma 0

(5) Additional Compounds for GNG4 Gene - From: Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
[D-Trp7,9,10]-Substance P
G-Protein antagonist peptide
Gue 1654
SCH 202676 hydrobromide

(5) Tocris Compounds for GNG4 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
[D-Trp7,9,10]-Substance P Inhibits M1 ACh receptor activation of Gq/11 89430-38-6
G-Protein antagonist peptide Inhibits G protein activation by GPCRs 143675-79-0
Gue 1654 Selective inhibitor of OXE-R Gbetagamma signaling 397290-30-1
Mastoparan Activates Gi and Go 72093-21-1
SCH 202676 hydrobromide Inhibitor of ligand binding to G-protein-coupled receptors 265980-25-4
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GNG4: view

Transcripts for GNG4 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GNG4 Gene

Guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 4:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GNG4 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c
SP1: - -
SP2: -
SP3: - - -

Relevant External Links for GNG4 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GNG4 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GNG4 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GNG4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Hypothalamus (x5.1), Brain - Amygdala (x5.0), Pituitary (x4.1), and Brain - Nucleus accumbens (basal ganglia) (x4.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GNG4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Retina (21.1), Fetal Brain (14.2), Islet of Langerhans (9.8), Pancreas (8.5), and Ovary (7.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for GNG4 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GNG4 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GNG4 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GNG4 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GNG4 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Brain, kidney, pancreas, skeletal muscle and faintly in cardiac muscle.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GNG4 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.8)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GNG4: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GNG4 Gene

Orthologs for GNG4 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GNG4 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GNG4 34 33
  • 99.56 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GNG4 34
  • 95 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GNG4 34 33
  • 92 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GNG4 34 33
  • 91.56 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gng4 33
  • 90.67 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gng4 16 34 33
  • 89.78 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GNG4 34 33
  • 76.13 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GNG4 34
  • 84 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gng4 33
  • 79.11 (n)
Str.11936 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.24553 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gng3 33
Species where no ortholog for GNG4 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GNG4 Gene

Gene Tree for GNG4 (if available)
Gene Tree for GNG4 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GNG4: view image

Paralogs for GNG4 Gene

Paralogs for GNG4 Gene

(10) SIMAP similar genes for GNG4 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GNG4: view

Variants for GNG4 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GNG4 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000017347 -- 235,593,872(-) G/A genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000033319 -- 235,563,622(-) T/C intron_variant
rs1000055573 -- 235,598,993(-) C/T genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000069639 -- 235,637,316(-) A/G genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000085373 -- 235,563,404(-) A/C intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GNG4 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv30n21 CNV gain 19592680
esv2471335 CNV insertion 19546169
esv3575794 CNV gain 25503493
esv3589198 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1011288 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1013413 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1013571 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1068233 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1122460 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv476824 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878
nsv549392 CNV gain 21841781
nsv832936 CNV gain 17160897

Variation tolerance for GNG4 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 61.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.09; 1.97% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GNG4 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNG4 Gene

Disorders for GNG4 Gene

Additional Disease Information for GNG4

No disorders were found for GNG4 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GNG4 Gene

Publications for GNG4 Gene

  1. Isolation of cDNA clones encoding eight different human G protein gamma subunits, including three novel forms designated the gamma 4, gamma 10, and gamma 11 subunits. (PMID: 7665596) Ray K … Robishaw JD (The Journal of biological chemistry 1995) 2 3 4 58
  2. Genetic correlates of longevity and selected age-related phenotypes: a genome-wide association study in the Framingham Study. (PMID: 17903295) Lunetta KL … Murabito JM (BMC medical genetics 2007) 3 44 58
  3. Identification of novel VHL target genes and relationship to hypoxic response pathways. (PMID: 15824735) Maina EN … Maher ER (Oncogene 2005) 3 22 58
  4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 58
  5. Architecture of the human interactome defines protein communities and disease networks. (PMID: 28514442) Huttlin EL … Harper JW (Nature 2017) 3 58

Products for GNG4 Gene

Sources for GNG4 Gene

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