Aliases for GNG12 Gene

Aliases for GNG12 Gene

  • G Protein Subunit Gamma 12 2 3 5
  • Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) Subunit Gamma-12 3 4
  • Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein (G Protein), Gamma 12 2 3
  • G-Protein Gamma-12 Subunit 3
  • GNG12 5

External Ids for GNG12 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GNG12 Gene

  • GC01M067098
  • GC01M067524
  • GC01M067537
  • GC01M067879
  • GC01M067939
  • GC01M068167
  • GC01M066277

Summaries for GNG12 Gene

GeneCards Summary for GNG12 Gene

GNG12 (G Protein Subunit Gamma 12) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Translation Translation regulation by Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors and Sweet Taste Signaling. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include obsolete signal transducer activity and phosphate ion binding. An important paralog of this gene is GNG7.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for GNG12 Gene

  • Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction.

Tocris Summary for GNG12 Gene

  • Heterotrimeric G proteins are membrane bound GTPases that are linked to 7-TM receptors. Each G protein contains an alpha-, beta- and gamma-subunit and is bound to GDP in the 'off' state. Ligand binding causes a receptor conformational change, detaching the G protein and switching it 'on'.

Gene Wiki entry for GNG12 Gene

Additional gene information for GNG12 Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , CIViC Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for GNG12 Gene

Genomics for GNG12 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for GNG12 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH01J067830 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 613.2 +0.8 833 4.9 RNF2 PRDM10 ZNF629 REST KDM1A ZNF692 ZHX2 LARP7 PRDM1 ZIC2 GNG12 GNG12-AS1 lnc-DIRAS3-2 RNU7-80P GADD45A
GH01J067785 Promoter/Enhancer 1.7 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 625.6 +42.8 42766 11.8 REST FOXA1 ZSCAN4 IKZF2 CEBPB SP1 ZNF766 DPF2 ATF3 YY1 GNG12 GNG12-AS1 RNU6-1031P DIRAS3 RF00066-012 RNU7-80P lnc-DIRAS3-2 GADD45A
GH01J067887 Enhancer 1.4 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 23.2 -56.2 -56234 3.8 ATF7 PRDM10 ZNF629 JUND PRDM1 MTA2 ZNF501 DPF2 ZNF600 SOX6 GNG12 GNG12-AS1 DIRAS3 lnc-GADD45A-6
GH01J067801 Enhancer 1 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 26.2 +30.0 29957 4.6 CTCF ZNF600 SCRT2 DPF2 RELB USF1 ZBTB17 ZBTB11 IKZF1 ZNF366 GNG12 GNG12-AS1 RNU7-80P RNU6-1031P DIRAS3 lnc-DIRAS3-2 RF00066-012 GADD45A
GH01J067896 Enhancer 1 Ensembl ENCODE 22.2 -64.1 -64134 2.8 RFX1 JUND PKNOX1 ZNF24 HDAC1 SOX6 EP300 MGA GTF2E2 SP1 GNG12 GNG12-AS1 lnc-GADD45A-6 DIRAS3
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GNG12 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for GNG12

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GNG12 gene promoter:
  • AML1a
  • FOXL1
  • GATA-6
  • HNF-4alpha1
  • MRF-2
  • MZF-1
  • NF-1
  • NF-kappaB
  • NF-kappaB1
  • RelA

Genomic Locations for GNG12 Gene

Genomic Locations for GNG12 Gene
131,993 bases
Minus strand
132,007 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GNG12 Gene

Genes around GNG12 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GNG12 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GNG12 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GNG12 Gene

Proteins for GNG12 Gene

  • Protein details for GNG12 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-12
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q69YP5
    • Q9BRV5

    Protein attributes for GNG12 Gene

    72 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    8006 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma.

neXtProt entry for GNG12 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GNG12 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys34 and Lys64
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GNG12 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GNG12 Gene

Domains & Families for GNG12 Gene

Gene Families for GNG12 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for GNG12 Gene

  • Gamma G-protein (transducin) signature

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GNG12 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-12 (GBG12_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G protein gamma family.
  • Belongs to the G protein gamma family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GNG12: view

Function for GNG12 Gene

Molecular function for GNG12 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GNG12 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GNG12 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003924 GTPase activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 21988832
GO:0030165 PDZ domain binding IDA 23209302
GO:0031681 G-protein beta-subunit binding IBA 21873635
GO:0042301 phosphate ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNG12: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GNG12: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for GNG12 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GNG12

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for GNG12

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GNG12

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GNG12 Gene

Localization for GNG12 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNG12 Gene

Cell membrane. Lipid-anchor. Cytoplasmic side.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GNG12 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 4
extracellular 4
cytoskeleton 3
nucleus 2
cytosol 2
mitochondrion 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GNG12 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005834 heterotrimeric G-protein complex IBA 21873635
GO:0005884 actin filament IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0031680 G-protein beta/gamma-subunit complex IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNG12: view

Pathways & Interactions for GNG12 Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for GNG12 Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 Development Angiotensin activation of ERK
2 G-Beta Gamma Signaling
3 ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 12
4 Presynaptic function of Kainate receptors
5 ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 1
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GNG12: view

Pathways by source for GNG12 Gene

34 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathways for GNG12 Gene
  • Apoptosis and survival BAD phosphorylation
  • Cell adhesion Integrin inside-out signaling
  • Chemotaxis CXCR4 signaling pathway
  • Cytoskeleton remodeling Reverse signaling by ephrin B
  • Cytoskeleton remodeling Role of PKA in cytoskeleton reorganisation
47 Qiagen pathways for GNG12 Gene
  • Actin Nucleation and Branching
  • Actin Nucleation by ARP-WASP Complex
  • Actin-Based Motility by Rho Family GTPases
  • Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA
  • Activation of PKA through GPCR

SIGNOR curated interactions for GNG12 Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GNG12 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction TAS 10819326
GO:0007186 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway IBA 21873635
GO:0021987 cerebral cortex development IEA --
GO:0032496 response to lipopolysaccharide IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNG12: view

Drugs & Compounds for GNG12 Gene

(3) Drugs for GNG12 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Guanosine diphosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Guanosine monophosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Guanosine triphosphate Experimental Pharma 0

(5) Additional Compounds for GNG12 Gene - From: Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
[D-Trp7,9,10]-Substance P
G-Protein antagonist peptide
Gue 1654
SCH 202676 hydrobromide

(5) Tocris Compounds for GNG12 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
[D-Trp7,9,10]-Substance P Inhibits M1 ACh receptor activation of Gq/11 89430-38-6
G-Protein antagonist peptide Inhibits G protein activation by GPCRs 143675-79-0
Gue 1654 Selective inhibitor of OXE-R Gbetagamma signaling 397290-30-1
Mastoparan Activates Gi and Go 72093-21-1
SCH 202676 hydrobromide Inhibitor of ligand binding to G-protein-coupled receptors 265980-25-4
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GNG12: view

Transcripts for GNG12 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GNG12 Gene

16 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
2 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for GNG12

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GNG12

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GNG12 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b · 9c · 9d · 9e
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - - - -
SP3: - - - -
SP4: - - -
SP5: -

Relevant External Links for GNG12 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for

Expression for GNG12 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for GNG12 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GNG12 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Spinal cord (6.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for GNG12 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GNG12 Gene

- Elite partner

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for GNG12

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GNG12 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GNG12 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.8)
  • Liver(4.4)
  • Adrenal gland(4.3)
  • Skin(3.6)
  • Lung(2.4)
  • Kidney(2.3)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GNG12: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GNG12 Gene

Orthologs for GNG12 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GNG12 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GNG12 30 31
  • 100 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GNG12 31
  • 92 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GNG12 30 31
  • 91.2 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GNG12 30 31
  • 89.35 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gng12 30 17 31
  • 86.57 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gng12 30
  • 86.11 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GNG12 30 31
  • 78.24 (n)
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gng12 30
  • 79.63 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii GNG12 (2 of 2) 31
  • 78 (a)
LOC100331581 30
  • 72.69 (n)
gng12a 31
  • 72 (a)
Species where no ortholog for GNG12 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GNG12 Gene

Gene Tree for GNG12 (if available)
Gene Tree for GNG12 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GNG12: view image

Paralogs for GNG12 Gene

Paralogs for GNG12 Gene

(10) SIMAP similar genes for GNG12 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GNG12: view

Variants for GNG12 Gene

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for GNG12 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GNG12 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv1336934 CNV deletion 17803354
esv1542404 CNV deletion 17803354
esv3308903 CNV mobile element insertion 20981092
esv3350914 CNV duplication 20981092
esv3365929 CNV insertion 20981092
nsv1077905 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv830104 CNV gain 17160897
nsv954610 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for GNG12 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 68.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.35; 7.72% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GNG12 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for GNG12 Gene

Disorders for GNG12 Gene

No disorders were found for GNG12 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GNG12 Gene

Publications for GNG12 Gene

  1. Genomic characterization of the human heterotrimeric G protein alpha, beta, and gamma subunit genes. (PMID: 10819326) Hurowitz EH … Shizuya H (DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2000) 2 3 4
  2. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T … Sugano S (Nature genetics 2004) 3 4
  3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4
  4. Identification of a region in G protein gamma subunits conserved across species but hypervariable among subunit isoforms. (PMID: 11714923) Cook LA … Hildebrandt JD (Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society 2001) 3 4
  5. Gene expression profiling in the human hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and full-length cDNA cloning. (PMID: 10931946) Hu RM … Chen JL (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000) 3 4

Products for GNG12 Gene

Sources for GNG12 Gene