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Aliases for GNB2 Gene

Aliases for GNB2 Gene

  • G Protein Subunit Beta 2 2 3 5
  • Transducin Beta Chain 2 2 3 4
  • Signal-Transducing Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Regulatory Protein Beta Subunit 2 3
  • Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein (G Protein), Beta Polypeptide 2 2 3
  • Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) Beta Subunit 2 2 3
  • G Protein, Beta-2 Subunit 2 3
  • G Protein Subunit Beta-2 3 4
  • Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) Subunit Beta-2 3

External Ids for GNB2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GNB2 Gene

  • GC07P098805
  • GC07P099868
  • GC07P099882
  • GC07P099918
  • GC07P100110
  • GC07P100271
  • GC07P094902

Summaries for GNB2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GNB2 Gene

  • Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits, as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. This gene contains a trinucleotide (CCG) repeat length polymorphism in its 5' UTR. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GNB2 Gene

GNB2 (G Protein Subunit Beta 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Akt Signaling and Presynaptic function of Kainate receptors. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include GTPase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GNB4.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNB2 Gene

  • Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction.

Tocris Summary for GNB2 Gene

  • Heterotrimeric G proteins are membrane bound GTPases that are linked to 7-TM receptors. Each G protein contains an alpha-, beta- and gamma-subunit and is bound to GDP in the 'off' state. Ligand binding causes a receptor conformational change, detaching the G protein and switching it 'on'.

Gene Wiki entry for GNB2 Gene

Additional gene information for GNB2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GNB2 Gene

Genomics for GNB2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GNB2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GNB2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH07J100672 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 661.7 +3.5 3461 8.6 CLOCK MLX ZFP64 FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF143 ZNF548 GNB2 GC07P100676 TRIM4 ZNF3 GIGYF1 SRRT PCOLCE STAG3L5P PPP1R35 ENSG00000242798
GH07J100427 Promoter/Enhancer 2.4 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11 -240.3 -240332 10.8 CLOCK ZFP64 FEZF1 DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF143 PPP1R35 MEPCE ZCWPW1 PIR54054 ZSCAN25 SRRT TRIM4 GIGYF1 ZNF3 PILRA
GH07J100014 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11 -657.0 -656959 3.4 PKNOX1 SMAD1 FOXA2 MLX ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZBTB7B YY1 POLR2B ZKSCAN1 ZSCAN25 TRIM4 SRRT PPP1R35 AP4M1 ZNF655 ZNF3 MEPCE GIGYF1
GH07J100873 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 11 +201.8 201775 2.9 CLOCK MLX DMAP1 YY1 E2F8 ZNF143 SP3 NFYC ZC3H11A MEF2D SRRT PIR40651 TRIM4 ZNF3 GIGYF1 PPP1R35 STAG3L5P PCOLCE PILRB ENSG00000242798
GH07J100098 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 11 -572.6 -572602 5.8 CLOCK DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF143 SP3 NFYC AP4M1 MCM7 ZSCAN25 SRRT PPP1R35 TRIM4 GIGYF1 PTCD1 MEPCE ZNF394
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GNB2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GNB2 gene promoter:
  • Pax-4a
  • GATA-1
  • Egr-4
  • RORalpha1
  • HOXA5
  • Brachyury
  • POU2F1a
  • POU2F1
  • ATF
  • USF-1:USF-2

Genomic Locations for GNB2 Gene

Genomic Locations for GNB2 Gene
5,644 bases
Plus strand
5,644 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GNB2 Gene

Genes around GNB2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GNB2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GNB2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GNB2 Gene

Proteins for GNB2 Gene

  • Protein details for GNB2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B3KPU1
    • P11016
    • P54312

    Protein attributes for GNB2 Gene

    340 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    37331 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma. Interacts with ARHGEF18 and RASD2. Interacts with ATXN10. Interacts with SCN8A (PubMed:26900580).

    Alternative splice isoforms for GNB2 Gene


neXtProt entry for GNB2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GNB2 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys301, Lys209, and isoforms=23
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GNB2 Gene

Domains & Families for GNB2 Gene

Gene Families for GNB2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the WD repeat G protein beta family.
  • Belongs to the WD repeat G protein beta family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GNB2: view

Function for GNB2 Gene

Molecular function for GNB2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein),beta,polypeptide 2,containing a CCG repeat in 5utr

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GNB2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GNB2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003924 GTPase activity TAS 2902634
GO:0004871 obsolete signal transducer activity IEA --
GO:0005246 calcium channel regulator activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16498633
GO:0044877 protein-containing complex binding IDA 23209302
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNB2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GNB2: view

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GNB2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GNB2 Gene

Localization for GNB2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNB2 Gene

Cytoplasm, perinuclear region.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GNB2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 5
lysosome 5
plasma membrane 4
nucleus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Plasma membrane (4)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GNB2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005615 extracellular space HDA 16502470
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005765 lysosomal membrane HDA 17897319
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNB2: view

Pathways & Interactions for GNB2 Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 Development Angiotensin activation of ERK
2 ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 12
3 fMLP Pathway
4 G-Beta Gamma Signaling
5 Presynaptic function of Kainate receptors
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GNB2: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for GNB2 Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GNB2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006457 protein folding TAS --
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS 7649993
GO:0065009 regulation of molecular function IEA --
GO:0071377 cellular response to glucagon stimulus TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNB2: view

Drugs & Compounds for GNB2 Gene

(3) Drugs for GNB2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Guanosine diphosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Guanosine monophosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Guanosine triphosphate Experimental Pharma 0

(5) Additional Compounds for GNB2 Gene - From: Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
[D-Trp7,9,10]-Substance P
G-Protein antagonist peptide
Gue 1654
SCH 202676 hydrobromide

(5) Tocris Compounds for GNB2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
[D-Trp7,9,10]-Substance P Inhibits M1 ACh receptor activation of Gq/11 89430-38-6
G-Protein antagonist peptide Inhibits G protein activation by GPCRs 143675-79-0
Gue 1654 Selective inhibitor of OXE-R Gbetagamma signaling 397290-30-1
Mastoparan Activates Gi and Go 72093-21-1
SCH 202676 hydrobromide Inhibitor of ligand binding to G-protein-coupled receptors 265980-25-4
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GNB2: view

Transcripts for GNB2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GNB2 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(9) Additional mRNA sequences :
(939) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(13) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GNB2 Gene

Guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GNB2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GNB2 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9
SP1: -

Relevant External Links for GNB2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GNB2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GNB2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GNB2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x6.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GNB2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Frontal cortex (7.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for GNB2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GNB2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GNB2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GNB2 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GNB2 Gene

  • Pancreas(4.7)
  • Skin(4.5)
  • Nervous system(4.4)
  • Lung(4.1)
  • Intestine(3.1)
  • Blood(2.9)
  • Eye(2.2)
  • Kidney(2.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GNB2: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GNB2 Gene

Orthologs for GNB2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GNB2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GNB2 34 33
  • 99.61 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GNB2 34
  • 99 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GNB2 34 33
  • 94.71 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GNB2 34 33
  • 94.61 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gnb2 16 34 33
  • 92.65 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gnb2 33
  • 92.16 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 74 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GNB2 34
  • 95 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gnb2 34 33
  • 79.9 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Gbeta13F 34
  • 81 (a)
G&bgr;13F 35
  • 81 (a)
G&bgr;76C 35
  • 43 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP005913 33
  • 72.35 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea gpb-1 34 35
  • 85 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.10536 34
  • 78 (a)
Species where no ortholog for GNB2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GNB2 Gene

Gene Tree for GNB2 (if available)
Gene Tree for GNB2 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GNB2: view image

Paralogs for GNB2 Gene

Paralogs for GNB2 Gene

(12) SIMAP similar genes for GNB2 Gene using alignment to 7 proteins:

  • E7EP32_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GNB2: view

Variants for GNB2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GNB2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000302566 -- 100,676,586(+) G/A intron_variant
rs1000360190 -- 100,672,422(+) AAAAAAAAA/AAAAAAAAAA upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001625407 -- 100,677,306(+) T/C intron_variant
rs1001849793 -- 100,679,068(+) AGGAGGT/ 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs1001863285 -- 100,673,312(+) T/G upstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GNB2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2664857 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2734888 CNV deletion 23290073
nsv1137588 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv365346 CNV deletion 16902084
nsv470381 CNV loss 18288195
nsv607933 CNV gain 21841781
nsv607934 CNV gain 21841781
nsv8184 CNV loss 18304495
nsv831072 CNV loss 17160897
nsv951386 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for GNB2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 13.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.91; 18.87% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GNB2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNB2 Gene

Disorders for GNB2 Gene

Additional Disease Information for GNB2

No disorders were found for GNB2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GNB2 Gene

Publications for GNB2 Gene

  1. Ataxin 10 induces neuritogenesis via interaction with G-protein beta2 subunit. (PMID: 16498633) Waragai M … Ashizawa T (Journal of neuroscience research 2006) 3 4 22 58
  2. Large-scale sequencing of two regions in human chromosome 7q22: analysis of 650 kb of genomic sequence around the EPO and CUTL1 loci reveals 17 genes. (PMID: 9799793) Glöckner G … Rosenthal A (Genome research 1998) 2 3 4 58
  3. Pathogenic mechanism of recurrent mutations of SCN8A in epileptic encephalopathy. (PMID: 26900580) Wagnon JL … Meisler MH (Annals of clinical and translational neurology 2016) 3 4 58
  4. The cationic region of Rhes mediates its interactions with specific Gbeta subunits. (PMID: 19255495) Hill C … Davey J (Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology 2009) 3 4 58
  5. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T … Sugano S (Nature genetics 2004) 3 4 58

Products for GNB2 Gene