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Aliases for GLS2 Gene

Aliases for GLS2 Gene

  • Glutaminase 2 2 3 5
  • Glutaminase Liver Isoform, Mitochondrial 3 4
  • Glutaminase 2 (Liver, Mitochondrial) 2 3
  • L-Glutamine Amidohydrolase 3 4
  • EC 3.5.1.2 4 56
  • GLS 3 4
  • GA 3 4
  • Phosphate-Activated Glutaminase 3
  • Phosphate-Dependent Glutaminase 3
  • Breast Cell Glutaminase 3
  • Glutaminase I 3
  • L-Glutaminase 4
  • HLGA 3
  • LGA 3

External Ids for GLS2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GLS2 Gene

  • GC12M055154
  • GC12M055155
  • GC12M056864
  • GC12M053903

Summaries for GLS2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GLS2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a mitochondrial phosphate-activated glutaminase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glutamine to stoichiometric amounts of glutamate and ammonia. Originally thought to be liver-specific, this protein has been found in other tissues as well. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

GeneCards Summary for GLS2 Gene

GLS2 (Glutaminase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GLS2 include Juvenile Dermatitis Herpetiformis and Myasthenic Syndrome, Congenital, 10. Among its related pathways are Arginine biosynthesis and D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include glutaminase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GLS.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLS2 Gene

  • Plays an important role in the regulation of glutamine catabolism. Promotes mitochondrial respiration and increases ATP generation in cells by catalyzing the synthesis of glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate. Increases cellular anti-oxidant function via NADH and glutathione production. May play a role in preventing tumor proliferation.

Additional gene information for GLS2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GLS2 Gene

Genomics for GLS2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GLS2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GLS2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH12J056487 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 600.7 +0.4 410 2 SP1 ELF3 CEBPG ZSCAN21 FOS AHR TFE3 ZBTB7A SP7 KAT8 GLS2 ENSG00000285528 RBMS2 DNAJC14 ZBTB39 BAZ2A ZC3H10 PRIM1 ENSG00000258317 NEMP1
GH12J056484 Promoter 0.5 EPDnew 600.7 +3.9 3877 0.1 GLS2 ENSG00000285528 MIP
GH12J056489 Enhancer 0.4 Ensembl 600.7 -1.8 -1787 1.6 PRDM4 HNF4A CEBPB GLS2 GC12M056497
GH12J056358 Promoter/Enhancer 2.4 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 10.6 +128.4 128413 3.6 SP1 ELF3 CC2D1A MNT NKRF POLR2A MLLT1 GTF2F1 ZNF384 ZSCAN21 STAT2 ZC3H10 BAZ2A ENSG00000257303 ENSG00000258317 IL23A PAN2 NEMP1 DNAJC14 ZBTB39
GH12J056447 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 10.9 +39.2 39213 3.2 ZNF652 CC2D1A ELF3 ZFX MNT CBFA2T2 NKRF POLR2A MLLT1 ZNF121 TIMELESS PRIM1 GLS2 DNAJC14 STAT2 APOF BAZ2A RBMS2 MIP ENSG00000285528
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GLS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GLS2 gene promoter:
  • AREB6
  • ARP-1
  • CUTL1
  • ER-alpha
  • Ik-1
  • LCR-F1
  • N-Myc
  • NRSF form 1
  • NRSF form 2
  • YY1

Genomic Locations for GLS2 Gene

Genomic Locations for GLS2 Gene
chr12:56,470,944-56,488,414
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
17,471 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr12:56,864,736-56,882,198
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
17,463 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for GLS2 Gene

Genes around GLS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GLS2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GLS2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GLS2 Gene

Proteins for GLS2 Gene

  • Protein details for GLS2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q9UI32-GLSL_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Glutaminase liver isoform, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Q9UI32
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B7Z8Q9
    • Q8IX91
    • Q9NYY2
    • Q9UI31

    Protein attributes for GLS2 Gene

    Size:
    602 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    66323 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with the PDZ domain of the syntrophin SNTA1. Interacts with the PDZ domain of TAX1BP3.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GLS2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GLS2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for GLS2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for GLS2 Gene

Q9UI32:
  • NPMVNAGAI
  • EAVRNTLSLMHSCGMYDFSGQFAFHVGLPAKS
  • SEKETGDRN
  • VGKEPSG
  • AIGYYLKEKKCFP
  • YFQLCSVEVTCES
  • DLLFYTIAEGQE
  • GFSNATFQSE
  • ILLVVPNVMGMMC
  • KFVIPDF
  • PFCLQSCVKPL
  • SNIVLLTQAFR
  • DYDSRTALHVAAAEGH

Post-translational modifications for GLS2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Domains & Families for GLS2 Gene

Gene Families for GLS2 Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GLS2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • cDNA FLJ76505, highly similar to Homo sapiens glutaminase 2 (liver, mitochondrial) (GLS2), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, transcript variant 2, mRNA (A8K0A6_HUMAN)
  • cDNA FLJ52925, highly similar to Glutaminase liver isoform, mitochondrial (EC 3.5.1.2) (B7Z8Q9_HUMAN)
  • Glutaminase 2 short variant (E5G743_HUMAN)
  • Truncated glutaminase 2 (E5G744_HUMAN)
  • Truncated glutaminase 2 (E5G745_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q9UI32

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GLSL_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the glutaminase family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the glutaminase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GLS2: view

Function for GLS2 Gene

Molecular function for GLS2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Plays an important role in the regulation of glutamine catabolism. Promotes mitochondrial respiration and increases ATP generation in cells by catalyzing the synthesis of glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate. Increases cellular anti-oxidant function via NADH and glutathione production. May play a role in preventing tumor proliferation.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=H2O + L-glutamine = L-glutamate + NH4(+); Xref=Rhea:RHEA:15889, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:28938, ChEBI:CHEBI:29985, ChEBI:CHEBI:58359; EC=3.5.1.2;.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Up-regulated by P53 (at protein and mRNA level) under both stressed and non-stressed conditions.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GLS2 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GLS2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GLS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004359 glutaminase activity IBA 21873635
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI,IEA 11163757
GO:0016787 hydrolase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLS2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GLS2: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for GLS2

CRISPR Products

miRNA for GLS2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GLS2

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for GLS2

Clone Products

  • Applied Biological Materials (abm): Clones for GLS2 - Now 50% OFF >
  • * GLS2 as ready-to-use vector or virus: ORF | Lenti- | Retro- | Adeno- | AAV- | Protein Vector - Browse All
  • * GLS2 tags and reporters available: His, HA, Myc, Flag, GFP, RFP, Luciferase - Browse All

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GLS2 Gene

Localization for GLS2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLS2 Gene

Mitochondrion.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GLS2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
extracellular 2
nucleus 2
cytosol 2
plasma membrane 1
cytoskeleton 1
peroxisome 0
endoplasmic reticulum 0

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GLS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA,TAS 20351271
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLS2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GLS2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GLS2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GLS2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GLS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006520 cellular amino acid metabolic process TAS 10620514
GO:0006537 glutamate biosynthetic process IBA 21873635
GO:0006541 glutamine metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006543 glutamine catabolic process IBA 21873635
GO:0008652 cellular amino acid biosynthetic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLS2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GLS2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GLS2 Gene

(14) Drugs for GLS2 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Ammonia Approved Pharma Enzyme, substrate 0
Glutamic Acid Approved Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Target 272
L-Glutamine Approved, Investigational Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Enzyme, substrate 0
Famotidine Approved Pharma Histamine H2-receptor antagonist 69
Water Approved Pharma 0

(8) Additional Compounds for GLS2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GLS2: view

Transcripts for GLS2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GLS2 Gene

Glutaminase 2 (liver, mitochondrial):
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for GLS2

Clone Products

  • Applied Biological Materials (abm): Clones for GLS2 - Now 50% OFF >
  • * GLS2 as ready-to-use vector or virus: ORF | Lenti- | Retro- | Adeno- | AAV- | Protein Vector - Browse All
  • * GLS2 tags and reporters available: His, HA, Myc, Flag, GFP, RFP, Luciferase - Browse All

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GLS2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b · 7c · 7d ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12a · 12b ^
SP1:
SP2:
SP3: - - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - -
SP5:
SP6: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP7: - - -
SP8: - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP9:
SP10: - - - - -
SP11: - - - - -
SP12: -
SP13:
SP14:

ExUns: 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17a · 17b ^ 18 ^ 19a · 19b
SP1:
SP2:
SP3:
SP4:
SP5:
SP6:
SP7:
SP8:
SP9: -
SP10:
SP11:
SP12:
SP13:
SP14:

Relevant External Links for GLS2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GLS2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GLS2

Expression for GLS2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GLS2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GLS2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x11.1), Pancreas (x5.8), Brain - Cerebellar Hemisphere (x4.3), and Brain - Cerebellum (x4.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GLS2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Gallbladder (30.5) and Liver (7.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for GLS2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for GLS2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GLS2 Gene:

GLS2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GLS2 Gene:

Hs.212606

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GLS2 Gene:

Q9UI32-GLSL_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in liver. Expressed in brain and pancreas. Not observed in heart, placenta, lung, skeletal muscle and kidney. Expression is significantly reduced in hepatocellular carcinomas.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GLS2 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.8)
  • Liver(4.6)
  • Blood(2.4)
  • Heart(2.3)
  • Muscle(2.1)
  • Intestine(2)
  • Kidney(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GLS2: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GLS2 Gene

Orthologs for GLS2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GLS2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GLS2 35 34
  • 99.67 (n)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GLS2 35 34
  • 93.36 (n)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GLS2 35 34
  • 91.87 (n)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gls2 17 35 34
  • 90.25 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gls2 34
  • 89.76 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GLS2 35
  • 89 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 85 (a)
OneToMany
-- 35
  • 85 (a)
OneToMany
-- 35
  • 56 (a)
OneToMany
-- 35
  • 51 (a)
OneToMany
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GLS2 35
  • 81 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gls2 34
  • 69.66 (n)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii si:dkey-102c8.6 34
  • 68.99 (n)
gls2 35
  • 64 (a)
OneToMany
GLS2 (1 of 3) 35
  • 61 (a)
OneToMany
GLS2 (2 of 3) 35
  • 32 (a)
OneToMany
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG42708 35
  • 37 (a)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea glna-2 35
  • 43 (a)
ManyToMany
glna-3 35
  • 41 (a)
ManyToMany
glna-1 35
  • 29 (a)
ManyToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 35
  • 26 (a)
OneToOne
Species where no ortholog for GLS2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GLS2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GLS2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GLS2 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GLS2: view image

Paralogs for GLS2 Gene

Paralogs for GLS2 Gene

(3) SIMAP similar genes for GLS2 Gene using alignment to 13 proteins:

  • GLSL_HUMAN
  • A8K0A6_HUMAN
  • B7Z8Q9_HUMAN
  • C9J3Q2_HUMAN
  • E5G743_HUMAN
  • E5G744_HUMAN
  • E5G745_HUMAN
  • F8WBC9_HUMAN
  • F8WBL8_HUMAN
  • F8WEU7_HUMAN
  • G5E9X4_HUMAN
  • L0R6H3_HUMAN
  • Q0VD99_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GLS2: view

Variants for GLS2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GLS2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000094799 -- 56,475,547(-) C/G/T intron_variant
rs1000265411 -- 56,472,948(-) C/T intron_variant
rs1000318992 -- 56,472,557(-) A/C/G intron_variant
rs1000755087 -- 56,481,847(-) C/T intron_variant
rs1000824490 -- 56,480,464(-) T/A intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GLS2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2677984 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2745928 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3629598 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1052713 CNV gain 25217958
nsv482992 CNV gain+loss 15286789

Variation tolerance for GLS2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 10.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.79; 66.81% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GLS2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
GLS2
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
GLS2

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLS2 Gene

Disorders for GLS2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(14) MalaCards diseases for GLS2 Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GLS2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for GLS2

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GLS2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GLS2 Gene

Publications for GLS2 Gene

  1. Molecular cloning, sequencing and expression studies of the human breast cancer cell glutaminase. (PMID: 10620514) Gómez-Fabre PM … Márquez J (The Biochemical journal 2000) 2 3 4 23 58
  2. Glutaminase 2, a novel p53 target gene regulating energy metabolism and antioxidant function. (PMID: 20378837) Hu W … Feng Z (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2010) 3 4 23 58
  3. Genomic organization and transcriptional analysis of the human l-glutaminase gene. (PMID: 12444921) Pérez-Gómez C … Márquez J (The Biochemical journal 2003) 3 4 23 58
  4. The C-terminus of human glutaminase L mediates association with PDZ domain-containing proteins. (PMID: 11163757) Olalla L … Márquez J (FEBS letters 2001) 3 4 23 58
  5. Identification of two human glutaminase loci and tissue-specific expression of the two related genes. (PMID: 11130979) Aledo JC … Márquez J (Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 2000) 2 3 23 58

Products for GLS2 Gene

Sources for GLS2 Gene

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