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Aliases for GLO1 Gene

Aliases for GLO1 Gene

  • Glyoxalase I 2 3 4 5
  • S-D-Lactoylglutathione Methylglyoxal Lyase 3 4
  • Glyoxalase Domain Containing 1 2 3
  • Ketone-Aldehyde Mutase 3 4
  • Methylglyoxalase 3 4
  • Aldoketomutase 3 4
  • EC 4 56
  • Glx I 3 4
  • Epididymis Secretory Protein Li 74 3
  • Lactoyl Glutathione Lyase 3
  • Lactoylglutathione Lyase 3
  • HEL-S-74 3
  • GLOD1 3
  • GLYI 3

External Ids for GLO1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GLO1 Gene

  • GC06M038645
  • GC06M038690
  • GC06M038751
  • GC06M038361

Summaries for GLO1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GLO1 Gene

  • The enzyme encoded by this gene is responsible for the catalysis and formation of S-lactoyl-glutathione from methylglyoxal condensation and reduced glutatione. Glyoxalase I is linked to HLA and is localized to 6p21.3-p21.1, between HLA and the centromere. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GLO1 Gene

GLO1 (Glyoxalase I) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GLO1 include Triosephosphate Isomerase Deficiency and Diabetic Encephalopathy. Among its related pathways are Respiratory electron transport, ATP synthesis by chemiosmotic coupling, and heat production by uncoupling proteins. and Metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include lactoylglutathione lyase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLO1 Gene

  • Catalyzes the conversion of hemimercaptal, formed from methylglyoxal and glutathione, to S-lactoylglutathione. Involved in the regulation of TNF-induced transcriptional activity of NF-kappa-B. Required for normal osteoclastogenesis.

Gene Wiki entry for GLO1 Gene

Additional gene information for GLO1 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GLO1 Gene

Genomics for GLO1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GLO1 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GLO1 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH06I038701 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 569.6 +0.4 368 2 HDGF FOXA2 SMAD1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 POLR2B ZNF766 GLO1 ANKRD18EP SAYSD1 BTBD9 GC06P042389
GH06I038638 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 9.3 +63.5 63523 2.8 HDGF PKNOX1 ARID4B SIN3A ZNF2 ZNF766 E2F8 ZNF143 ZNF207 KLF13 BTBD9 GC06P041629 LOC105375044 GLO1 GC06M038613 PIR46862
GH06I038754 Enhancer 0.7 ENCODE 23.4 -52.6 -52573 1.8 PKNOX1 NFIB JUN NEUROD1 ZNF335 CTBP1 GATA3 ATF7 RCOR1 FOS GLO1 DNAH8 ZRF1PS RN7SL465P
GH06I038673 Enhancer 0.7 ENCODE 21.1 +29.4 29373 0.9 HDAC1 MEIS2 KLF1 PKNOX1 ZNF76 CC2D1A CTBP1 ZSCAN5C SIRT6 PRDM10 GLO1 BTBD9 GC06P042389
GH06I038795 Enhancer 0.9 ENCODE 10.9 -92.9 -92924 0.8 HDGF PKNOX1 ATF1 ARNT TCF12 ZNF766 GATA2 ATF7 MBD2 MEF2D ENSG00000212586 GLO1 GC06P042402 DNAH8
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around GLO1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GLO1 gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for GLO1 Gene

Genomic Locations for GLO1 Gene
27,252 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GLO1 Gene

Genes around GLO1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GLO1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GLO1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GLO1 Gene

Proteins for GLO1 Gene

  • Protein details for GLO1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Lactoylglutathione lyase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R6P7
    • B4DDV0
    • P78375
    • Q59EL0
    • Q5TZW3
    • Q96FC0
    • Q96J41

    Protein attributes for GLO1 Gene

    184 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    20778 Da
    Name=Zn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29105;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.
    • Sequence=BAD93038.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GLO1 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GLO1 Gene


neXtProt entry for GLO1 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for GLO1 Gene


Post-translational modifications for GLO1 Gene

  • Exists in a nitric oxide (NO)-modified form. The exact nature of the modification is unknown, but it suppresses the TNF-induced transcriptional activity of NF-kappa-B.
  • Glutathionylation at Cys-139 inhibits enzyme activity.
  • Phosphorylated at Thr-107 in the presence of CaMK2. However, this is a consensus site for phosphorylation by CK2 so phosphorylation may be mediated by CK2 rather than CaMK2. Phosphorylation is induced by TNF and suppresses the TNF-induced transcriptional activity of NF-kappa-B.
  • Ubiquitination at posLast=4444, posLast=140140, and isoforms=2148
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GLO1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains & Families for GLO1 Gene

Gene Families for GLO1 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GLO1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the glyoxalase I family.
  • Belongs to the glyoxalase I family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GLO1: view

Function for GLO1 Gene

Molecular function for GLO1 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glyoxalase I
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=1.3 mM for methylglyoxal/glutathione (native form) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:20454679}; KM=0.7 mM for methylglyoxal/glutathione (reduced form) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:20454679}; Vmax=0.335 umol/min/mg enzyme with methylglyoxal/glutathione as substrate (native form) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:20454679}; Vmax=0.7 umol/min/mg enzyme with methylglyoxal/glutathione as substrate (reduced form) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:20454679}; Note=Reduction of GLO1 was carried out by incubation with 20 mM betamercaptoethanol prior to kinetic analysis.;
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
(R)-S-lactoylglutathione = glutathione + methylglyoxal.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Regulated by oxidation of Cys-139 in response to the redox state of the cell. Results in the alternative formation of cystine or glutathione-bound cysteine, the latter modification leading to reduced enzyme activity.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the conversion of hemimercaptal, formed from methylglyoxal and glutathione, to S-lactoylglutathione. Involved in the regulation of TNF-induced transcriptional activity of NF-kappa-B. Required for normal osteoclastogenesis.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GLO1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GLO1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004462 lactoylglutathione lyase activity TAS --
GO:0008270 zinc ion binding IEA,IDA 9705294
GO:0016829 lyase activity IEA --
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLO1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GLO1: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for GLO1

CRISPR Products

miRNA for GLO1 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GLO1

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GLO1 Gene

Localization for GLO1 Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GLO1 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
plasma membrane 4
mitochondrion 2

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (3)
  • Nucleoplasm (3)
  • Plasma membrane (3)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GLO1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm TAS 16130169
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IDA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome HDA,IDA 19056867
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLO1: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLO1 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GLO1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GLO1: view

Pathways by source for GLO1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q04760-LGUL_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Secondary metabolite metabolism; methylglyoxal degradation; (R)-lactate from methylglyoxal: step 1/2.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GLO1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006090 pyruvate metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006357 regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IEA --
GO:0006749 glutathione metabolic process IEA --
GO:0009438 methylglyoxal metabolic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLO1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GLO1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GLO1 Gene

(38) Drugs for GLO1 Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Glutathione Approved, Investigational Nutra Target 0
Indomethacin Approved, Investigational Pharma Partial agonist, Agonist, Target, inhibitor Cox inhibitor 119
S-Hexylglutathione Experimental Pharma Target 0
Beta-Mercaptoethanol Experimental Pharma Target 0
methyl 4-(2,3-dihydroxy-5-methylphenoxy)-2-hydroxy-6-methylbenzoate Experimental Pharma Target 0

(27) Additional Compounds for GLO1 Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • (R)-S-lactoylglutathione
  • D-Lactoylglutathione
  • delta-Lactoylglutathione
  • N-(N-L-gamma-Glutamyl-S-(2-hydroxy-1-oxopropyl)-L-cysteinyl)-glycine
  • S-D-Lactoyl-glutathione

(1) ApexBio Compounds for GLO1 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Glyoxalase I inhibitor Glyoxalase I inhibitor 221174-33-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GLO1: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for GLO1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GLO1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GLO1 Gene

Glyoxalase I:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GLO1 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b · 7c · 7d
SP1: - -
SP2: -
SP3: - - - -

Relevant External Links for GLO1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GLO1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GLO1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GLO1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone (20.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for GLO1 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GLO1 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GLO1 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GLO1 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GLO1 Gene

  • Nervous system(5)
  • Eye(4.7)
  • Intestine(4.7)
  • Liver(4.7)
  • Blood(4.6)
  • Kidney(3.7)
  • Skin(3.7)
  • Lung(3.5)
  • Heart(2.5)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GLO1: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GLO1 Gene

Orthologs for GLO1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for GLO1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GLO1 33 34
  • 99.09 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GLO1 33 34
  • 91.67 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GLO1 33 34
  • 90.76 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GLO1 34
  • 84 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Glo1 33 16 34
  • 82.43 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Glo1 33
  • 82.25 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GLO1 34
  • 77 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GLO1 33 34
  • 82.31 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GLO1 34
  • 84 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia glo1 33
  • 70.15 (n)
Str.7707 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.5524 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii glo1 33 33 34
  • 69.16 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG1707 35 33 34
  • 60.82 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP012072 33
  • 55.43 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes GLO1 33 34 36
  • 56.25 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0F06226g 33
  • 55.64 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ADR286C 33
  • 52.31 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT1G08110 33
  • 61.18 (n)
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.4045 33
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.865 33
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os05g0295800 33
  • 63.57 (n)
Os.11010 33
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.11411 33
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.16759 33
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes glo1 33
  • 58.02 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU04815 33
  • 53.7 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.11135 33
Species where no ortholog for GLO1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GLO1 Gene

Gene Tree for GLO1 (if available)
Gene Tree for GLO1 (if available)

Paralogs for GLO1 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for GLO1 Gene

Variants for GLO1 Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLO1 Gene

Exists in three separable isoforms which originate from two alleles in the genome. These correspond to two homodimers and one heterodimer composed of two subunits showing different electrophoretic properties.

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GLO1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs4746 uncertain-significance, Autism 1 38,682,852(-) T/A/G coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1000029718 -- 38,681,121(-) T/A intron_variant
rs1000482457 -- 38,686,075(-) T/C intron_variant
rs1000487665 -- 38,681,253(-) A/G intron_variant
rs1000663196 -- 38,692,878(-) C/T intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GLO1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2759421 CNV gain+loss 17122850
esv3608747 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1015689 CNV gain 25217958
nsv428144 CNV gain 18775914
nsv507326 OTHER sequence alteration 20534489
nsv830642 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for GLO1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 26% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 9.48; 88.73% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GLO1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

Disorders for GLO1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for GLO1 Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GLO1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Genatlas disease for GLO1 Gene

glyoxalase I deficiency

Additional Disease Information for GLO1

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GLO1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLO1 Gene

Publications for GLO1 Gene

  1. Human glyoxalase I. cDNA cloning, expression, and sequence similarity to glyoxalase I from Pseudomonas putida. (PMID: 7684374) Kim NS … Kato S (The Journal of biological chemistry 1993) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Posttranslational modification of human glyoxalase 1 indicates redox-dependent regulation. (PMID: 20454679) Birkenmeier G … Birkemeyer C (PloS one 2010) 3 4 22 58
  3. CYP17, GSTP1, PON1 and GLO1 gene polymorphisms as risk factors for breast cancer: an Italian case-control study. (PMID: 19379515) Antognelli C … Rulli A (BMC cancer 2009) 3 22 44 58
  4. Polymorphisms in glyoxalase 1 gene are not associated with vascular complications: the Hoorn and CoDAM studies. (PMID: 19412133) Engelen L … Schalkwijk CG (Journal of hypertension 2009) 3 22 44 58
  5. No association between common variants in glyoxalase 1 and autism spectrum disorders. (PMID: 17722011) Rehnström K … Hovatta I (American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2008) 3 22 44 58

Products for GLO1 Gene

Sources for GLO1 Gene

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