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Aliases for GK2 Gene

Aliases for GK2 Gene

  • Glycerol Kinase 2 2 3 5
  • ATP:Glycerol 3-Phosphotransferase 2 3 4
  • Glycerol Kinase Pseudogene 2 2 3
  • Glycerokinase 2 3 4
  • EC 4 56
  • GKP2 3 4
  • GKTA 3 4
  • Testis Tissue Sperm-Binding Protein Li 77m 3
  • Glycerol Kinase, Testis Specific 2 4
  • Glycerol Kinase Testis Specific 2 3
  • GK 2 4

External Ids for GK2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GK2 Gene

  • GKP2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GK2 Gene

  • GC04M080255
  • GC04M080601
  • GC04M080720
  • GC04M080785
  • GC04M080684
  • GC04M076074

Summaries for GK2 Gene

GeneCards Summary for GK2 Gene

GK2 (Glycerol Kinase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GK2 include Glycerol Kinase 2 and Glycerol Kinase Deficiency. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Regulation of lipid metabolism by Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include phosphotransferase activity, alcohol group as acceptor and glycerol kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GK.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GK2 Gene

  • Key enzyme in the regulation of glycerol uptake and metabolism.

Additional gene information for GK2 Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GK2 Gene

Genomics for GK2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GK2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GK2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH04I079408 Promoter 0.7 EPDnew 550.8 +0.0 45 0.1 NRF1 ZBTB33 GK2 LOC105377300
GH04I079378 Enhancer 0.3 dbSUPER 12.6 +27.7 27747 3.8 ATF2 GK2 NAA11 ANXA3 LOC105377300
GH04I079413 Enhancer 0.6 UCNEbase dbSUPER 0.4 -5.4 -5410 0.3 GK2 GC04P079476
GH04I079394 Enhancer 0.5 dbSUPER 0.4 +12.7 12685 2.7 SOX6 IKZF1 CEBPB CEBPG GK2 LOC105377300
GH04I079385 Enhancer 0.6 UCNEbase dbSUPER 0.3 +22.4 22443 0.3 PCAT4 LOC105377300 GK2
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around GK2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GK2 gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for GK2 Gene

Genomic Locations for GK2 Gene
1,942 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GK2 Gene

Genes around GK2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GK2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GK2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GK2 Gene

Proteins for GK2 Gene

  • Protein details for GK2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Glycerol kinase 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K876
    • Q6PD73
    • Q86XV8

    Protein attributes for GK2 Gene

    553 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    60594 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for GK2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for GK2 Gene


Post-translational modifications for GK2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for GK2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains & Families for GK2 Gene

Gene Families for GK2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GK2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the FGGY kinase family.
  • Belongs to the FGGY kinase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GK2: view

Function for GK2 Gene

Molecular function for GK2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + glycerol = ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Key enzyme in the regulation of glycerol uptake and metabolism.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GK2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004370 glycerol kinase activity IBA,NAS 7987308
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
GO:0016301 kinase activity IEA --
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
GO:0016773 phosphotransferase activity, alcohol group as acceptor IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GK2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GK2: view

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GK2

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GK2 Gene

Localization for GK2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GK2 Gene

Mitochondrion outer membrane; Peripheral membrane protein; Cytoplasmic side. Cytoplasm. Note=In sperm the majority of the enzyme is bound to mitochondria. {ECO:0000250}.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GK2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
mitochondrion 4
peroxisome 2
plasma membrane 1
cytosol 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IBA --
GO:0005741 mitochondrial outer membrane IEA --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA,HDA 19056867
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GK2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GK2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GK2: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q14410-GLPK2_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Polyol metabolism; glycerol degradation via glycerol kinase pathway; sn-glycerol 3-phosphate from glycerol: step 1/1.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006071 glycerol metabolic process IBA --
GO:0006072 glycerol-3-phosphate metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006641 triglyceride metabolic process IBA --
GO:0016310 phosphorylation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GK2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GK2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GK2 Gene

(2) Drugs for GK2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Glycerol Approved, Investigational Pharma 175
ATP Investigational Nutra Agonist 0

(2) Additional Compounds for GK2 Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
glycerol 3-phosphate
  • 1-(Dihydrogen phosphate) Glycerol
  • 1-Glycerophosphate
  • 1-Glycerophosphorate
  • 1-Glycerophosphoric acid
  • 3-Glycerophosphate
  • Adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine diphosphate
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine-5'-diphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist 58-64-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GK2: view

Transcripts for GK2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GK2 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(7) Additional mRNA sequences :
(47) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GK2 Gene

Glycerol kinase 2:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GK2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GK2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GK2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GK2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GK2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GK2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (x52.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GK2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (33.7), Ovary (10.7), and Kidney (7.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for GK2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GK2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GK2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GK2 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GK2 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GK2: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GK2 Gene

Orthologs for GK2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for GK2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GK2 33 34
  • 99.28 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GK2 33 34
  • 87.98 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GK2 33 34
  • 87.56 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 84 (a)
-- 34
  • 82 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gk2 33 16 34
  • 83.7 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gk2 33
  • 81.82 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 81 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 34
  • 78 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 68 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia gk2-prov 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii GK2 34
  • 74 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Gyk 34
  • 51 (a)
Gk 34
  • 45 (a)
CG8298 34
  • 36 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea R11F4.1 34
  • 47 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes GUT1 34
  • 32 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.4742 34
  • 61 (a)
Species where no ortholog for GK2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GK2 Gene

Gene Tree for GK2 (if available)
Gene Tree for GK2 (if available)

Paralogs for GK2 Gene

Paralogs for GK2 Gene

(3) SIMAP similar genes for GK2 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GK2: view

Variants for GK2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GK2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 04 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000185205 -- 79,408,207(-) A/C 5_prime_UTR_variant
rs1000217797 -- 79,408,362(-) C/G upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001851314 -- 79,406,653(-) A/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1002632383 -- 79,409,798(-) G/A upstream_transcript_variant
rs1002663442 -- 79,410,107(-) T/C upstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GK2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2727859 CNV deletion 23290073
nsv1006026 CNV loss 25217958
nsv999174 CNV loss 25217958

Variation tolerance for GK2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 73% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.92; 35.67% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GK2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GK2 Gene

Disorders for GK2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for GK2 Gene - From: HGMD, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
glycerol kinase 2
  • gk2
glycerol kinase deficiency
  • gkd
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GK2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for GK2

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GK2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GK2 Gene

Publications for GK2 Gene

  1. The glycerol kinase gene family: structure of the Xp gene, and related intronless retroposons. (PMID: 7987308) Sargent CA … Affara NA (Human molecular genetics 1994) 2 3 4 58
  2. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PMID: 20877624) Hendrickson SL … O'Brien SJ (PloS one 2010) 3 44 58
  3. Architecture of the human interactome defines protein communities and disease networks. (PMID: 28514442) Huttlin EL … Harper JW (Nature 2017) 3 58
  4. Identification of a panel of complex autoantigens (LGALS3, PHB2, MUC1, and GK2) in combination with CA15-3 for the diagnosis of early-stage breast cancer. (PMID: 26289852) Zuo X … Qin T (Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine 2016) 3 58
  5. The BioPlex Network: A Systematic Exploration of the Human Interactome. (PMID: 26186194) Huttlin EL … Gygi SP (Cell 2015) 3 58

Products for GK2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for GK2

Sources for GK2 Gene

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