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Aliases for GIP Gene

Aliases for GIP Gene

  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide 2 3 3 5
  • Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide 2 3 4
  • Incretin Hormone 3 4

External Ids for GIP Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GIP Gene

  • GC17M046748
  • GC17M049516
  • GC17M047377
  • GC17M047510
  • GC17M044390
  • GC17M047037
  • GC17M042403

Summaries for GIP Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GIP Gene

  • This gene encodes an incretin hormone and belongs to the glucagon superfamily. The encoded protein is important in maintaining glucose homeostasis as it is a potent stimulator of insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells following food ingestion and nutrient absorption. This gene stimulates insulin secretion via its G protein-coupled receptor activation of adenylyl cyclase and other signal transduction pathways. It is a relatively poor inhibitor of gastric acid secretion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GIP Gene

GIP (Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GIP include Dumping Syndrome and Postgastrectomy Syndrome. Among its related pathways are Presynaptic function of Kainate receptors and Incretin synthesis, secretion, and inactivation. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include signaling receptor binding and hormone activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GIP Gene

  • Potent stimulator of insulin secretion and relatively poor inhibitor of gastric acid secretion.

Additional gene information for GIP Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GIP Gene

Genomics for GIP Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GIP Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GIP Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH17J048970 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 650.7 -3.7 -3716 3.7 HDGF FOXA2 MLX ZFP64 ARID4B NEUROD1 SIN3A DMAP1 POLR2B ZNF548 GIP UBE2Z ENSG00000262837 TTLL6 PHOSPHO1 IGF2BP1 SNF8
GH17J048968 Promoter 0.6 EPDnew 650.7 0.0 -19 0.1 ZBTB17 GIP IGF2BP1
GH17J048538 Promoter/Enhancer 3 VISTA EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 14.6 +395.4 395430 68.8 FEZF1 IRF4 YY1 ZNF213 ZNF143 SP3 MEF2D ZNF610 GLIS1 NBN HOXB2 HOXB3 HOXB6 HOXB4 HOXB5 PIR47329 PIR34300 UBE2Z SP2 ENSG00000264701
GH17J048906 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 14.8 +59.8 59786 4.4 MLX ZFP64 DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF143 SP3 UBE2Z SUMO2P17 ENSG00000262837 ENSG00000266601 FAM117A ENSG00000264701 FLJ45513 ATP5MC1 CALCOCO2 GIP
GH17J048943 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 14.9 +24.1 24060 2.1 HDGF SMAD1 MLX ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 SLC30A9 POLR2B SNF8 GC17P048947 UBE2Z ATP5MC1 GIP ENSG00000250838 ENSG00000251461 RN7SL125P LINC02075 SPOP
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GIP on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GIP gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • CREB
  • deltaCREB
  • ATF-2
  • c-Jun

Genomic Locations for GIP Gene

Genomic Locations for GIP Gene
10,043 bases
Minus strand
10,043 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GIP Gene

Genes around GIP on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GIP Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GIP Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GIP Gene

Proteins for GIP Gene

  • Protein details for GIP Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Gastric inhibitory polypeptide
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q4VB42
    • Q6NTD3

    Protein attributes for GIP Gene

    153 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    17108 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GIP Gene

neXtProt entry for GIP Gene

Post-translational modifications for GIP Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for GIP Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GIP Gene

Domains & Families for GIP Gene

Gene Families for GIP Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for GIP Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GIP Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the glucagon family.
  • Belongs to the glucagon family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GIP: view

Function for GIP Gene

Molecular function for GIP Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Potent stimulator of insulin secretion and relatively poor inhibitor of gastric acid secretion.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GIP Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GIP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005179 hormone activity TAS,IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 17715056
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GIP: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GIP: view

Animal Models for GIP Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GIP:
  • Gip Gip<tm1Nina>
  • Gip Gip<tm1.1Gmost>

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for GIP

miRNA for GIP Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GIP

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GIP Gene

Localization for GIP Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GIP Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GIP gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
endoplasmic reticulum 5
cytosol 3
plasma membrane 2
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GIP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005788 endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS --
GO:0034774 secretory granule lumen TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GIP: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GIP Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GIP Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GIP: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GIP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction TAS 2890159
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0007565 female pregnancy IEA --
GO:0007613 memory IEA --
GO:0008344 adult locomotory behavior IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GIP: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GIP Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GIP Gene

(77) Drugs for GIP Gene - From: ClinicalTrials and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Acetaminophen Approved Pharma 1014
Atropine Approved, Vet_approved Pharma Antagonist MAChRs antagonist 153
Bethanechol Approved Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 4
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Pharma Agonist Anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid 2314
Hydrocortisone Approved, Vet_approved Pharma Agonist 713

(9) Additional Compounds for GIP Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GIP: view

Transcripts for GIP Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GIP Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(9) Additional mRNA sequences :
(7) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GIP Gene

Gastric inhibitory polypeptide:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GIP Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GIP Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GIP Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GIP Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GIP Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Small Intestine - Terminal Ileum (x50.6).

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GIP Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GIP Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GIP Gene

  • Intestine(3.7)
  • Pancreas(3.2)
  • Blood(3)
  • Stomach(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GIP: view

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GIP Gene

Orthologs for GIP Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of mammals.

Orthologs for GIP Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GIP 34 33
  • 99.56 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GIP 34 33
  • 80.79 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GIP 34 33
  • 78.67 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gip 33
  • 77.08 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gip 16 34 33
  • 76.85 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GIP 34
  • 47 (a)
Species where no ortholog for GIP was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for GIP Gene

Gene Tree for GIP (if available)
Gene Tree for GIP (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GIP: view image

Paralogs for GIP Gene

No data available for Paralogs for GIP Gene

Variants for GIP Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GIP Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000031676 -- 48,962,433(-) A/G intron_variant
rs1000106420 -- 48,962,152(-) C/T intron_variant
rs1001334309 -- 48,966,667(-) C/T intron_variant
rs1001397478 -- 48,958,428(-) C/A/T downstream_transcript_variant
rs1001468858 -- 48,967,780(-) A/T intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GIP Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv14e194 CNV deletion 18987734
dgv51n6 CNV deletion 16902084
esv1008009 CNV deletion 20482838
esv1297877 CNV deletion 17803354
esv1331947 CNV deletion 17803354
esv21954 CNV gain+loss 19812545
esv2237705 CNV deletion 18987734
esv2651898 CNV deletion 19546169
esv2716019 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3554512 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3754 CNV loss 18987735
nsv1109086 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv2073 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv482204 CNV loss 20164927
nsv482969 CNV loss 15286789
nsv820855 CNV deletion 20802225
nsv833472 CNV gain 17160897

Variation tolerance for GIP Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 64.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.27; 62.56% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GIP Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GIP Gene

Disorders for GIP Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(11) MalaCards diseases for GIP Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
dumping syndrome
  • dumping syndrome
postgastrectomy syndrome
  • postgastric surgery syndrome
pancreatic cholera
  • excessive vasoactive intestinal peptide secretion
endocrine pancreas disease
  • disorder of endocrine pancreas
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GIP in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for GIP

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
Tumor Gene Database
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GIP: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GIP Gene

Publications for GIP Gene

  1. Association analyses of GIP and GIPR polymorphisms with traits of the metabolic syndrome. (PMID: 17624916) Nitz I … Döring F (Molecular nutrition & food research 2007) 3 22 44 58
  2. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide: structure and chromosomal localization of the human gene. (PMID: 2739653) Inagaki N … Shows TB (Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 1989) 2 3 4 58
  3. L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha subunit 1C is a novel candidate gene associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism: an application of haplotype-based analysis for multiple linked single nucleotide polymorphisms. (PMID: 20424473) Yokoyama K … Hosoya T (Nephron. Clinical practice 2010) 3 44 58
  4. Association study of 182 candidate genes in anorexia nervosa. (PMID: 20468064) Pinheiro AP … Woodside DB (American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2010) 3 44 58
  5. Investigation of genetic susceptibility factors for human longevity - a targeted nonsynonymous SNP study. (PMID: 20800603) Flachsbart F … Nebel A (Mutation research 2010) 3 44 58

Products for GIP Gene

Sources for GIP Gene

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