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Aliases for GHRL Gene

Aliases for GHRL Gene

  • Ghrelin And Obestatin Prepropeptide 2 3 5
  • Ghrelin, Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor Ligand 2 3
  • Prepro-Appetite Regulatory Hormone 2 3
  • Growth Hormone-Releasing Peptide 3 4
  • Ghrelin/Obestatin Prepropeptide 2 3
  • Motilin-Related Peptide 3 4
  • MTLRP 3 4
  • Ghrelin/Obestatin Preprohormone 3
  • Appetite-Regulating Hormone 3
  • Growth Hormone Secretagogue 4
  • In2c-Preproghrelin 3
  • Preproghrelin 3
  • Protein M46 4

External Ids for GHRL Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GHRL Gene

  • GC03M010256
  • GC03M010302

Summaries for GHRL Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GHRL Gene

  • This gene encodes the ghrelin-obestatin preproprotein that is cleaved to yield two peptides, ghrelin and obestatin. Ghrelin is a powerful appetite stimulant and plays an important role in energy homeostasis. Its secretion is initiated when the stomach is empty, whereupon it binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor in the hypothalamus which results in the secretion of growth hormone (somatotropin). Ghrelin is thought to regulate multiple activities, including hunger, reward perception via the mesolimbic pathway, gastric acid secretion, gastrointestinal motility, and pancreatic glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. It was initially proposed that obestatin plays an opposing role to ghrelin by promoting satiety and thus decreasing food intake, but this action is still debated. Recent reports suggest multiple metabolic roles for obestatin, including regulating adipocyte function and glucose metabolism. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. In addition, antisense transcripts for this gene have been identified and may potentially regulate ghrelin-obestatin preproprotein expression. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

GeneCards Summary for GHRL Gene

GHRL (Ghrelin And Obestatin Prepropeptide) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GHRL include Body Mass Index Quantitative Trait Locus 11 and Eating Disorder. Among its related pathways are Peptide hormone metabolism and Peptide ligand-binding receptors. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include hormone activity and protein tyrosine kinase activator activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GHRL Gene

  • Ghrelin is the ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1 (GHSR). Induces the release of growth hormone from the pituitary. Has an appetite-stimulating effect, induces adiposity and stimulates gastric acid secretion. Involved in growth regulation.

  • Obestatin may be the ligand for GPR39. May have an appetite-reducing effect resulting in decreased food intake. May reduce gastric emptying activity and jejunal motility (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for GHRL Gene

Additional gene information for GHRL Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GHRL Gene

Genomics for GHRL Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GHRL Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GHRL Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH03I010291 Promoter/Enhancer 1.7 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 557.8 +0.1 107 2.3 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX ARID4B IRF4 TCF12 ZNF766 GATA2 FOS GHRL GC03M010291 GC03M010292 PIR58207 PIR44821 GHRLOS GC03P010614 SEC13
GH03I010290 Promoter 0.5 EPDnew 550.8 +2.2 2193 0.1 GC03M010291 GC03M010292 GHRL PIR58207 PIR44821 ENSG00000276678 GC03P010614 GHRLOS
GH03I010247 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.9 +43.7 43721 3 HDGF PKNOX1 CLOCK FOXA2 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 ENSG00000272410 PIR49172 PIR32642 PIR57492 PIR36484 PIR45247 TATDN2 GHRLOS GHRL IRAK2
GH03I009985 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 10.5 +305.8 305815 2.5 HDGF PKNOX1 CLOCK MLX ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 ZBTB7B EMC3-AS1 EMC3 FANCD2 BRPF1 BRK1 GHRLOS RNU6-670P FANCD2OS PRRT3 SETD5
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around GHRL on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GHRL gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for GHRL Gene

Genomic Locations for GHRL Gene
7,273 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GHRL Gene

Genes around GHRL on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GHRL Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GHRL Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GHRL Gene

Proteins for GHRL Gene

  • Protein details for GHRL Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Appetite-regulating hormone
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8CF34
    • A8CF38
    • A8CF42
    • A8DN29
    • A8DN30
    • Q86YP8
    • Q8TAT9
    • Q9H3R3

    Protein attributes for GHRL Gene

    117 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    12911 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GHRL Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GHRL Gene

neXtProt entry for GHRL Gene

Post-translational modifications for GHRL Gene

  • Amidation of Leu-98 is essential for obestatin activity.
  • O-octanoylation or O-decanoylation is essential for ghrelin activity. The O-decanoylated forms Ghrelin-27-C10 and Ghrelin-28-C10 differ in the length of the carbon backbone of the carboxylic acid bound to Ser-26. A small fraction of ghrelin, ghrelin-28-C10:1, may be modified with a singly unsaturated carboxylic acid (PubMed:10604470).
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Antibody Products

  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology (SCBT) Antibodies for GHRL

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GHRL Gene

Domains & Families for GHRL Gene

Gene Families for GHRL Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GHRL Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the motilin family.
  • Belongs to the motilin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GHRL: view

Function for GHRL Gene

Molecular function for GHRL Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Ghrelin is the ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1 (GHSR). Induces the release of growth hormone from the pituitary. Has an appetite-stimulating effect, induces adiposity and stimulates gastric acid secretion. Involved in growth regulation.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Obestatin may be the ligand for GPR39. May have an appetite-reducing effect resulting in decreased food intake. May reduce gastric emptying activity and jejunal motility (By similarity).

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GHRL Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GHRL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001664 G-protein coupled receptor binding ISS 10604470
GO:0005179 hormone activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 25416956
GO:0016608 growth hormone-releasing hormone activity IEA,TAS 16511605
GO:0030296 protein tyrosine kinase activator activity IMP 15350694
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GHRL: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GHRL: view

Animal Models for GHRL Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GHRL:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GHRL Gene

Localization for GHRL Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GHRL Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GHRL gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
endoplasmic reticulum 5
nucleus 3
plasma membrane 2
mitochondrion 2
cytosol 2
cytoskeleton 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GHRL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA,TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 15039149
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005788 endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS --
GO:0030424 axon IDA 17113048
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GHRL: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GHRL Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GHRL Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GHRL: view

Pathways by source for GHRL Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for GHRL Gene


Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GHRL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000187 activation of MAPK activity IMP 15350694
GO:0001696 gastric acid secretion IBA --
GO:0001937 negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation IDA 15572208
GO:0006006 glucose metabolic process NAS 17392603
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS 16511605
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GHRL: view

Drugs & Compounds for GHRL Gene

(90) Drugs for GHRL Gene - From: ApexBio and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Obestatin (rat) Pharma 0

(33) Additional Compounds for GHRL Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs

(1) ApexBio Compounds for GHRL Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Obestatin (rat) 869705-22-6
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GHRL: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for GHRL Gene

Unigene Clusters for GHRL Gene

Ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GHRL Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b
SP3: -

Relevant External Links for GHRL Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GHRL Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GHRL Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GHRL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Stomach (x40.7).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GHRL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Islet of Langerhans (65.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GHRL Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GHRL Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GHRL Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GHRL Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GHRL Gene:

Tissue specificity: Highest level in stomach. All forms are found in serum as well. Other tissues compensate for the loss of ghrelin synthesis in the stomach following gastrectomy.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GHRL Gene

  • Stomach(4.9)
  • Blood(4.7)
  • Heart(4.5)
  • Kidney(4.4)
  • Nervous system(4.3)
  • Intestine(2.9)
  • Pancreas(2.7)
  • Muscle(2.4)
  • Adrenal gland(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GHRL: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GHRL Gene

Orthologs for GHRL Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GHRL Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GHRL 34 33
  • 99.43 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ghrl 33 16 34
  • 85.47 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ghrl 33
  • 84.9 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GHRL 34 33
  • 83.48 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GHRL 34 33
  • 79.31 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GHRL 34
  • 54 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GHR 34
  • 37 (a)
Species where no ortholog for GHRL was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for GHRL Gene

Gene Tree for GHRL (if available)
Gene Tree for GHRL (if available)

Paralogs for GHRL Gene

No data available for Paralogs for GHRL Gene

Variants for GHRL Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GHRL Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs34911341 risk-factor, Metabolic syndrome, susceptibility to, Obesity 10,289,835(-) C/T coding_sequence_variant, intron_variant, missense_variant
rs4684677 risk-factor, Obesity 10,286,769(-) T/A coding_sequence_variant, intron_variant, missense_variant
rs696217 pathogenic, risk-factor, Obesity, age at onset of, Metabolic syndrome, susceptibility to 10,289,773(-) G/T coding_sequence_variant, intron_variant, missense_variant
rs1000183653 -- 10,288,125(-) C/T intron_variant
rs1000408195 -- 10,291,645(-) G/A 5_prime_UTR_variant, intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GHRL Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv762e201 CNV deletion 23290073
esv4117 OTHER complex 18987735
nsv1073204 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1121603 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv436362 CNV deletion 17901297
nsv436869 CNV insertion 17901297
nsv460420 CNV loss 19166990
nsv508903 CNV insertion 20534489
nsv589650 CNV loss 21841781

Variation tolerance for GHRL Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 82.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 5.92; 74.43% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GHRL Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GHRL Gene

Disorders for GHRL Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(45) MalaCards diseases for GHRL Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
body mass index quantitative trait locus 11
  • bmiq11
eating disorder
  • eating disorders
  • gastric atonia
3-hydroxyacyl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency
  • hadh deficiency
  • dyspepsia, indigestion nos
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GHRL in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for GHRL

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GHRL: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GHRL Gene

Publications for GHRL Gene

  1. Multiple genetic factors in olanzapine-induced weight gain in schizophrenia patients: a cohort study. (PMID: 19193342) Ujike H … Kuroda S (The Journal of clinical psychiatry 2008) 3 22 44 58
  2. Lack of association of ghrelin precursor gene variants and percentage body fat or serum lipid profiles. (PMID: 18239581) Martin GR … Sun G (Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) 2008) 3 22 44 58
  3. Ghrelin variants influence development of body mass index and plasma levels of total cholesterol in dialyzed patients. (PMID: 17635077) Hubacek JA … MIA Group (Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine 2007) 3 22 44 58
  4. Variations in the preproghrelin gene correlate with higher body mass index, fat mass, and body dissatisfaction in young Japanese women. (PMID: 17616759) Ando T … Komaki G (The American journal of clinical nutrition 2007) 3 22 44 58
  5. Variants in the ghrelin gene are associated with metabolic syndrome in the Old Order Amish. (PMID: 16204371) Steinle NI … Shuldiner AR (The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2005) 3 22 44 58

Products for GHRL Gene

Sources for GHRL Gene

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