GGT2 belongs to the gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT; EC 2.3.2.2) gene family. GGT is a membrane-bound extracellular enzyme that cleaves gamma-glutamyl peptide bonds in glutathione and other peptides and transfers the gamma-glutamyl moiety to acceptors. GGT is also key to glutathione homeostasis because it provides substrates for glutathione synthesis (Heisterkamp et al., 2008 [P... See more...

Aliases for GGT2 Gene

Aliases for GGT2 Gene

  • Gamma-Glutamyltransferase 2 2 3 4 5
  • Inactive Gamma-Glutamyltranspeptidase 2 3 4
  • Inactive Glutathione Hydrolase 2 3 4
  • GGT 2 3 4
  • Gamma-Glutamyltranspeptidase 2 3
  • Glutathione Hydrolase 2 3
  • EC 2.3.2.2 50
  • GGT2 5
  • GGT 3

External Ids for GGT2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GGT2 Gene

  • GGT

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GGT2 Gene

  • GC22M018260
  • GC22M019886
  • GC22M017136
  • GC22M018743
  • GC22M021562

Summaries for GGT2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GGT2 Gene

  • GGT2 belongs to the gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT; EC 2.3.2.2) gene family. GGT is a membrane-bound extracellular enzyme that cleaves gamma-glutamyl peptide bonds in glutathione and other peptides and transfers the gamma-glutamyl moiety to acceptors. GGT is also key to glutathione homeostasis because it provides substrates for glutathione synthesis (Heisterkamp et al., 2008 [PubMed 18357469]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GGT2 Gene

GGT2 (Gamma-Glutamyltransferase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GGT2 include Cerebral Dysgenesis, Neuropathy, Ichthyosis, And Palmoplantar Keratoderma Syndrome and Contractural Arachnodactyly, Congenital. Among its related pathways are Cytochrome P450 - arranged by substrate type and Glutathione metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include obsolete gamma-glutamyltransferase activity and glutathione hydrolase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GGT1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for GGT2 Gene

  • Isoform 1, isoform 2 and isoform 3 lack catalytic activity due to its inability to undergo the autocatalytic cleavage needed to produce a mature, enzymatically active heterodimer.

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for GGT2 Gene

Genomics for GGT2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for GGT2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH22J021150 Enhancer 0.5 Ensembl 6.7 +132.1 132122 0.6 ATF2 ATF1 ATF3 CREB1 ATF7 piR-34574-005 GGT2 E2F6P2 LRRC74B
GH22J021149 Enhancer 0.2 Ensembl 5.8 +133.7 133722 1.4 piR-34574-005 GGT2 E2F6P2 LRRC74B
GH22J021254 Enhancer 0.6 Ensembl CraniofacialAtlas 0.3 +27.2 27223 2.8 NFIC ZNF512 MNT HSALNG0134215 GGT2 HSALNG0134214 FAM230B LRRC74B
GH22J021267 Promoter 0.3 Ensembl 0.4 +14.9 14922 0.6 E2F6P3 piR-43267-003 GGT2 FAM230B LRRC74B
GH22J021102 Promoter/Enhancer 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE 0.1 +179.8 179777 0.7 ZNF654 MYC ZNF600 JUND ZNF580 ATF2 ZNF10 BRCA1 ZIC2 ZBTB10 BCRP2 lnc-LRRC74B-3 piR-38352-352 LRRC74B GGT2
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GGT2 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for GGT2

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GGT2 gene promoter:
  • AhR
  • Arnt
  • CBF(2)
  • CBF-A
  • GATA-2
  • HOXA9
  • HOXA9B
  • IRF-2
  • Meis-1
  • Meis-1b

Genomic Locations for GGT2 Gene

Latest Assembly
chr22:21,207,972-21,283,023
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
75,052 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Previous Assembly
chr22:21,562,262-21,632,151
(GRCh37/hg19 by Entrez Gene)
Size:
69,890 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

chr22:21,562,262-21,581,926
(GRCh37/hg19 by Ensembl)
Size:
19,665 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for GGT2 Gene

Genes around GGT2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GGT2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GGT2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GGT2 Gene

Proteins for GGT2 Gene

  • Protein details for GGT2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P36268-GGT2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Inactive glutathione hydrolase 2
    Protein Accession:
    P36268

    Protein attributes for GGT2 Gene

    Size:
    569 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    61771 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for GGT2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for GGT2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for GGT2 Gene

P36268:
  • VVQAIVRT
  • ATSTINLYFGSKV
  • VTEVVRNM
  • LILNILKGYNFS
  • DDGGTAHLS
  • GFPVGKGLA
  • PSPANFI
  • VDAAIAAL
  • PEFYTPDD
  • LTYHRIVEAFRFAYAKRT
  • GGLSVAVPGEI
  • GLCLWLPS
  • TIYNSTT

Post-translational modifications for GGT2 Gene

  • Not cleaved by autocatalysis into a large and a small subunit resulting in loss of cell membrane localization and catalytic activity.
  • Glycosylation at Asn230, Asn297, Asn344, and Asn511
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Glycosylation from GlyConnect

Domains & Families for GGT2 Gene

Gene Families for GGT2 Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for GGT2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GGT2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Gamma-glutamyltransferase 2 (GGT2_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P36268

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GGT2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the gamma-glutamyltransferase family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the gamma-glutamyltransferase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GGT2: view

Function for GGT2 Gene

Molecular function for GGT2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Isoform 1, isoform 2 and isoform 3 lack catalytic activity due to its inability to undergo the autocatalytic cleavage needed to produce a mature, enzymatically active heterodimer.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
gamma-glutamyltransferase 2,expressed in sigmoid,gamma-glutamyl cycle

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GGT2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GGT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000048 peptidyltransferase activity IBA 21873635
GO:0036374 NOT glutathione hydrolase activity IEA,IDA 23682772
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GGT2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GGT2: view

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GGT2 Gene

Localization for GGT2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GGT2 Gene

Cytoplasm, perinuclear region. Endoplasmic reticulum. Note=Co-localizes with calnexin in the endoplasmic reticulum.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GGT2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 5
endoplasmic reticulum 5
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
cytosol 2
peroxisome 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GGT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum IEA,IDA 23682772
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IBA 21873635
GO:0048471 perinuclear region of cytoplasm IEA,IDA 23682772
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome HDA 23533145
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GGT2: view

Pathways & Interactions for GGT2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GGT2: view

Interacting Proteins for GGT2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GGT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002682 regulation of immune system process IBA 21873635
GO:0006412 translation IEA --
GO:0006508 proteolysis IEA --
GO:0006751 glutathione catabolic process IBA 21873635
GO:0007283 spermatogenesis IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GGT2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GGT2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GGT2 Gene

(4) Drugs for GGT2 Gene - From: ApexBio and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Water Approved Pharma 0
Glutamic acid Approved Nutra 324
Glutathione Approved, Investigational Nutra 0
GGsTop Pharma γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) inhibitor, novel and irreversible 0

(1) Additional Compounds for GGT2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
cysteinylglycine
  • CG
  • Cys-gly
  • N-L-Cysteinylglycine
  • L-Cysteinylglycine
  • N-Cysteinyl glycine
19246-18-5

(1) ApexBio Compounds for GGT2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
GGsTop γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) inhibitor, novel and irreversible 926281-37-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GGT2: view

Drug products for research

Transcripts for GGT2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GGT2 Gene

1 REFSEQ mRNAs :
1 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
2 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GGT2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GGT2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GGT2

Expression for GGT2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for GGT2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GGT2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Thyroid (x17.4) and Kidney - Cortex (x16.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GGT2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Urine (52.4) and Platelet (16.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for GGT2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for GGT2 Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for GGT2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GGT2 Gene:

Hs.568255

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GGT2 Gene:

P36268-GGT2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in fetal and adult kidney and liver.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GGT2 Gene

  • Liver(4.5)
  • Nervous system(3.6)
  • Kidney(3.3)
  • Lung(3.1)
  • Blood(2.4)
  • Stomach(2.2)
  • Pancreas(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GGT2: view

Primer products for research

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GGT2 Gene

Orthologs for GGT2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for GGT2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia -- 30
  • 97 (a)
OneToMany
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 30
  • 80 (a)
OneToMany
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia -- 30
  • 80 (a)
OneToMany
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ggt1 30
  • 76 (a)
OneToMany
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 30
  • 70 (a)
OneToMany
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 30
  • 69 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 30
  • 64 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 30
  • 32 (a)
ManyToMany
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 30
  • 64 (a)
OneToMany
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 30
  • 59 (a)
OneToMany
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ggt1a 30
  • 56 (a)
ManyToMany
ggt1b 30
  • 53 (a)
ManyToMany
ggt1l2.2 30
  • 48 (a)
ManyToMany
si:dkey-222h21.12 30
  • 46 (a)
ManyToMany
si:ch73-236c18.3 30
  • 42 (a)
ManyToMany
ggt1l2.1 30
  • 39 (a)
ManyToMany
Fruit Fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG1492 30
  • 32 (a)
ManyToMany
CG4829 30
  • 25 (a)
ManyToMany
Worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C53D5.5 30
  • 34 (a)
ManyToMany
H14N18.4 30
  • 32 (a)
ManyToMany
Y7A9A.1 30
  • 32 (a)
ManyToMany
T03D8.6 30
  • 27 (a)
ManyToMany
Baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes ECM38 30
  • 26 (a)
OneToMany
Sea Squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 30
  • 47 (a)
ManyToMany
CSA.7538 30
  • 46 (a)
ManyToMany
Species where no ortholog for GGT2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Tropical Clawed Frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GGT2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GGT2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GGT2 (if available)
Alliance of Genome Resources:
Additional Orthologs for GGT2

Paralogs for GGT2 Gene

Paralogs for GGT2 Gene

(8) SIMAP similar genes for GGT2 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

  • GGT2_HUMAN
  • B5MCK8_HUMAN

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for GGT2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GGT2: view

Variants for GGT2 Gene

dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for variants without ClinVar clinical significance for GGT2 Gene

All consequence types are included: molecular consequences (e.g. missense, synonymous), and location-based (e.g. intron, upstream).

Variation tolerance for GGT2 Gene

Gene Damage Index Score: 7.05; 80.29% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GGT2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
GGT2
Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)
GGT2

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assays for research

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GGT2 Gene

Disorders for GGT2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(9) MalaCards diseases for GGT2 Gene - From: CVR and COP

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GGT2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for GGT2

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GGT2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GGT2 Gene

Publications for GGT2 Gene

  1. Human GGT2 does not autocleave into a functional enzyme: A cautionary tale for interpretation of microarray data on redox signaling. (PMID: 23682772) West MB … Hanigan MH (Antioxidants & redox signaling 2013) 3 4
  2. The human gamma-glutamyltransferase gene family. (PMID: 18357469) Heisterkamp N … Sneddon TP (Human genetics 2008) 2 3
  3. The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22. (PMID: 10591208) Dunham I … O'Brien KP (Nature 1999) 3 4
  4. Mapping of human gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase genes on chromosome 22 and other human autosomes. (PMID: 8104871) Figlewicz DA … Rouleau GA (Genomics 1993) 2 3
  5. Different gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase mRNAs are expressed in human liver and kidney. (PMID: 2573352) Pawlak A … Guellaën G (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1989) 3 4

Products for GGT2 Gene

Sources for GGT2 Gene