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Aliases for GGT2 Gene

Aliases for GGT2 Gene

  • Gamma-Glutamyltransferase 2 2 3 4 5
  • Inactive Gamma-Glutamyltranspeptidase 2 3 4
  • GGT 2 3 4
  • Inactive Glutathione Hydrolase 2 3
  • Gamma-Glutamyltranspeptidase 2 3
  • Glutathione Hydrolase 2 3
  • EC 56
  • GGT 3

External Ids for GGT2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GGT2 Gene

  • GGT

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GGT2 Gene

  • GC22M018260
  • GC22M019886
  • GC22M017136
  • GC22M018743
  • GC22M021562

Summaries for GGT2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GGT2 Gene

  • GGT2 belongs to the gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT; EC gene family. GGT is a membrane-bound extracellular enzyme that cleaves gamma-glutamyl peptide bonds in glutathione and other peptides and transfers the gamma-glutamyl moiety to acceptors. GGT is also key to glutathione homeostasis because it provides substrates for glutathione synthesis (Heisterkamp et al., 2008 [PubMed 18357469]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GGT2 Gene

GGT2 (Gamma-Glutamyltransferase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GGT2 include Cyclosporiasis and Algoneurodystrophy. Among its related pathways are Glutathione metabolism and Arachidonic acid metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include obsolete gamma-glutamyltransferase activity and glutathione hydrolase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GGT1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GGT2 Gene

  • Isoform 1, isoform 2 and isoform 3 lack catalytic activity due to its inability to undergo the autocatalytic cleavage needed to produce a mature, enzymatically active heterodimer.

Additional gene information for GGT2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GGT2 Gene

Genomics for GGT2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GGT2 Gene

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GGT2 gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for GGT2 Gene

Genomic Locations for GGT2 Gene
32,011 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GGT2 Gene

Genes around GGT2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GGT2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GGT2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GGT2 Gene

Proteins for GGT2 Gene

  • Protein details for GGT2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Inactive glutathione hydrolase 2
    Protein Accession:

    Protein attributes for GGT2 Gene

    569 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    61771 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for GGT2 Gene


neXtProt entry for GGT2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for GGT2 Gene


Post-translational modifications for GGT2 Gene

  • Not cleaved by autocatalysis into a large and a small subunit resulting in loss of cell membrane localization and catalytic activity.
  • Glycosylation at posLast=230230 and isoforms=2, 3511
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Domains & Families for GGT2 Gene

Gene Families for GGT2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for GGT2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GGT2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the gamma-glutamyltransferase family.
  • Belongs to the gamma-glutamyltransferase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GGT2: view

Function for GGT2 Gene

Molecular function for GGT2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
gamma-glutamyltransferase 2,expressed in sigmoid,gamma-glutamyl cycle
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Isoform 1, isoform 2 and isoform 3 lack catalytic activity due to its inability to undergo the autocatalytic cleavage needed to produce a mature, enzymatically active heterodimer.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GGT2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GGT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0036374 NOT glutathione hydrolase activity IEA,IDA 23682772
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GGT2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GGT2: view

Clone Products

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GGT2 Gene

Localization for GGT2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GGT2 Gene

Cytoplasm, perinuclear region. Endoplasmic reticulum. Note=Co-localizes with calnexin in the endoplasmic reticulum.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GGT2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
endoplasmic reticulum 5
plasma membrane 4
mitochondrion 2
peroxisome 2
nucleus 2
cytosol 2
lysosome 2
cytoskeleton 1
golgi apparatus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GGT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum IDA,IEA 23682772
GO:0048471 perinuclear region of cytoplasm IDA,IEA 23682772
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome HDA,IDA 23533145
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GGT2: view

Pathways & Interactions for GGT2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GGT2: view

Interacting Proteins for GGT2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GGT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006508 proteolysis IEA --
GO:0006751 glutathione catabolic process IEA --
GO:0031638 NOT zymogen activation IDA 23682772
GO:1901750 leukotriene D4 biosynthetic process ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GGT2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GGT2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GGT2 Gene

(4) Drugs for GGT2 Gene - From: ApexBio and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Water Approved Pharma 0
Glutamic Acid Approved Nutra Full agonist, Agonist 251
Glutathione Approved, Investigational Nutra 0
GGsTop Pharma γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) inhibitor, novel and irreversible 0

(1) Additional Compounds for GGT2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Cys-Gly
  • L-Cysteinylglycine
  • N-Cysteinyl Glycine
  • N-Cysteinyl-Glycine
  • N-L-Cysteinyl-Glycine

(1) ApexBio Compounds for GGT2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
GGsTop γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) inhibitor, novel and irreversible 926281-37-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GGT2: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for GGT2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GGT2 Gene

(22) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(2) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GGT2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GGT2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GGT2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GGT2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GGT2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Thyroid (x17.4) and Kidney - Cortex (x16.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GGT2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Urine (52.4) and Platelet (16.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GGT2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GGT2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GGT2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GGT2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GGT2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in fetal and adult kidney and liver.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GGT2 Gene

  • Liver(4.7)
  • Kidney(3.5)
  • Nervous system(3.5)
  • Blood(2.9)
  • Lung(2.8)
  • Urine(2.3)
  • Pancreas(2.1)
  • Stomach(2.1)
  • Intestine(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GGT2: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GGT2 Gene

Orthologs for GGT2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for GGT2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 97 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 80 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 80 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ggt1 34
  • 76 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 70 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 69 (a)
-- 34
  • 64 (a)
-- 34
  • 32 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 34
  • 64 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 59 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ggt1a 34
  • 56 (a)
ggt1b 34
  • 53 (a)
ggt1l2.2 34
  • 48 (a)
si:dkey-222h21.12 34
  • 46 (a)
si:ch73-236c18.3 34
  • 42 (a)
ggt1l2.1 34
  • 39 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG1492 34
  • 32 (a)
CG4829 34
  • 25 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C53D5.5 34
  • 34 (a)
H14N18.4 34
  • 32 (a)
Y7A9A.1 34
  • 32 (a)
T03D8.6 34
  • 27 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes ECM38 34
  • 26 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 47 (a)
CSA.7538 34
  • 46 (a)
Species where no ortholog for GGT2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GGT2 Gene

Gene Tree for GGT2 (if available)
Gene Tree for GGT2 (if available)

Paralogs for GGT2 Gene

Paralogs for GGT2 Gene

(8) SIMAP similar genes for GGT2 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins: Pseudogenes for GGT2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GGT2: view

Variants for GGT2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GGT2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 22 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000103937 -- 21,260,692(-) G/C genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000177981 -- 21,251,020(-) G/A genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000236258 -- 21,212,278(-) G/A genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000308942 -- 21,259,009(-) A/C genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000565485 -- 21,221,057(-) A/G 5_prime_UTR_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant

Variation tolerance for GGT2 Gene

Gene Damage Index Score: 7.05; 80.29% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GGT2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GGT2 Gene

Disorders for GGT2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(15) MalaCards diseases for GGT2 Gene - From: DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
  • cyclospora infection
  • reflex sympathetic dystrophy
periampullary adenoma
bile duct disease
  • bile duct disorder nos
biliary tract disease
  • biliary tract abnormality
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GGT2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for GGT2

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GGT2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GGT2 Gene

Publications for GGT2 Gene

  1. Human GGT2 does not autocleave into a functional enzyme: A cautionary tale for interpretation of microarray data on redox signaling. (PMID: 23682772) West MB … Hanigan MH (Antioxidants & redox signaling 2013) 3 4 58
  2. The human gamma-glutamyltransferase gene family. (PMID: 18357469) Heisterkamp N … Sneddon TP (Human genetics 2008) 2 3 58
  3. The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22. (PMID: 10591208) Dunham I … O'Brien KP (Nature 1999) 3 4 58
  4. Mapping of human gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase genes on chromosome 22 and other human autosomes. (PMID: 8104871) Figlewicz DA … Rouleau GA (Genomics 1993) 2 3 58
  5. Different gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase mRNAs are expressed in human liver and kidney. (PMID: 2573352) Pawlak A … Guellaën G (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1989) 3 4 58

Products for GGT2 Gene

Sources for GGT2 Gene

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