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Aliases for GGCT Gene

Aliases for GGCT Gene

  • Gamma-Glutamylcyclotransferase 2 3 3 5
  • Cytochrome C-Releasing Factor 21 3 4
  • C7orf24 3 4
  • CRF21 3 4
  • Chromosome 7 Open Reading Frame 24 2
  • Gamma -Glutamyl Cyclotransferase 3
  • EC 4
  • GCTG 3
  • GGC 3

External Ids for GGCT Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GGCT Gene

  • C7orf24
  • GCTG

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GGCT Gene

  • GC07M030503
  • GC07M030536
  • GC07M030418

Summaries for GGCT Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GGCT Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the formation of 5-oxoproline from gamma-glutamyl dipeptides, the penultimate step in glutathione catabolism, and may play a critical role in glutathione homeostasis. The encoded protein may also play a role in cell proliferation, and the expression of this gene is a potential marker for cancer. Pseudogenes of this gene are located on the long arm of chromosome 5 and the short arm of chromosomes 2 and 20. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

GeneCards Summary for GGCT Gene

GGCT (Gamma-Glutamylcyclotransferase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GGCT include Spinocerebellar Ataxia 10. Among its related pathways are Glutathione metabolism and Metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is ENSG00000281039.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GGCT Gene

  • Catalyzes the formation of 5-oxoproline from gamma-glutamyl dipeptides and may play a significant role in glutathione homeostasis. Induces release of cytochrome c from mitochondria with resultant induction of apoptosis.

Additional gene information for GGCT Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GGCT Gene

Genomics for GGCT Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GGCT Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GGCT Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH07I030501 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 556.2 +1.0 998 4 HDGF PKNOX1 SMAD1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 POLR2B E2F8 GGCT ENSG00000196295 ENSG00000226874 ENSG00000263683 DKFZP586I1420 NOD1 ENSG00000281039
GH07I030509 Enhancer 0.6 ENCODE 0.8 -4.5 -4536 0.2 SMARCE1 PKNOX1 RFX1 GATAD2B DPF2 ZNF217 CTBP1 GATA3 RCOR1 CUX1 NOD1 GARS GGCT ENSG00000244480 ENSG00000281039
GH07I030520 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 0.4 -19.2 -19196 7.9 FOXA2 BATF IRF4 ZBTB40 TCF12 ZNF766 SCRT2 SMARCC2 ATF7 BCLAF1 ENSG00000264520 ENSG00000244480 ENSG00000196295 NOD1 FKBP14 PLEKHA8 LOC100287825 GGCT ENSG00000281039
GH07I030493 Enhancer 0.6 ENCODE 0.4 +11.5 11484 0.2 ZNF687 NR2F1 DPF2 ZNF644 ZNF217 IKZF1 HNF4A IKZF2 NOD1 GGCT
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around GGCT on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GGCT gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for GGCT Gene

Genomic Locations for GGCT Gene
8,224 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GGCT Gene

Genes around GGCT on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GGCT Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GGCT Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GGCT Gene

Proteins for GGCT Gene

  • Protein details for GGCT Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RDN0
    • B8ZZN4
    • B8ZZR8
    • Q9BS37

    Protein attributes for GGCT Gene

    188 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    21008 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GGCT Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GGCT Gene


neXtProt entry for GGCT Gene

Post-translational modifications for GGCT Gene

  • Ubiquitination at posLast=140140
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GGCT Gene

Domains & Families for GGCT Gene

Gene Families for GGCT Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for GGCT Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GGCT Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase family.
  • Belongs to the gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GGCT: view

Function for GGCT Gene

Molecular function for GGCT Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=2.0 mM for gamma-glutamyl-L-alanine; Vmax=50.3 umol/min/mg enzyme;
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Alpha-(gamma-L-glutamyl)-L-amino acid = alpha-L-amino acid + 5-oxo-L-proline.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the formation of 5-oxoproline from gamma-glutamyl dipeptides and may play a significant role in glutathione homeostasis. Induces release of cytochrome c from mitochondria with resultant induction of apoptosis.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
By geranylgeraniol.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GGCT Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GGCT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003839 gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase activity TAS --
GO:0016829 lyase activity IEA --
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IDA 17932939
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GGCT: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GGCT: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for GGCT Gene

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GGCT Gene

Localization for GGCT Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GGCT gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 5
nucleus 3
golgi apparatus 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GGCT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome HDA,IDA 19056867
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GGCT: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GGCT Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GGCT Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GGCT: view

Pathways by source for GGCT Gene

1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for GGCT Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GGCT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001836 release of cytochrome c from mitochondria IMP 16765912
GO:0006750 glutathione biosynthetic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GGCT: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GGCT Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GGCT Gene

(3) Drugs for GGCT Gene - From: HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Pidolic Acid Approved, Experimental, Investigational Pharma 0
L-Cysteine Approved Nutra 0
gamma-glutamylcysteine Experimental Pharma 0

(1) Additional Compounds for GGCT Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid
  • (+)-2-Pyrrolidone-5-carboxylate
  • (+)-2-Pyrrolidone-5-carboxylic acid
  • (+)-Pyroglutamate
  • (+)-Pyroglutamic acid
  • (2R)-2-Carboxy-5-pyrrolidinone
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GGCT: view

Transcripts for GGCT Gene

Unigene Clusters for GGCT Gene

Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GGCT Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b · 5c · 5d · 5e
SP1: - - -
SP2: -
SP3: - - -
SP4: - - - -
SP5: - - - -
SP6: - - - - -
SP7: - -

Relevant External Links for GGCT Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GGCT Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GGCT Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GGCT Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (8.0) and Oral epithelium (6.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for GGCT Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GGCT Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GGCT Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GGCT Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GGCT Gene

  • Skin(4.6)
  • Lung(4.5)
  • Kidney(4.4)
  • Muscle(4.2)
  • Liver(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GGCT: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GGCT Gene

Orthologs for GGCT Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GGCT Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GGCT 33 34
  • 100 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GGCT 33 34
  • 89.3 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GGCT 33 34
  • 89.13 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ggct 33 16 34
  • 84.95 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ggct 33
  • 84.22 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GGCT 34
  • 66 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GGCT 34
  • 57 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GGCT 33 34
  • 75.4 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GGCT 34
  • 53 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ggctb 33
  • 58.28 (n)
ggcta 34
  • 53 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG32196 34 33
  • 52.15 (n)
CG4306 34
  • 30 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP010447 33
  • 51.55 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C44B7.7 33 34
  • 52.35 (n)
Species where no ortholog for GGCT was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GGCT Gene

Gene Tree for GGCT (if available)
Gene Tree for GGCT (if available)

Paralogs for GGCT Gene

Paralogs for GGCT Gene Pseudogenes for GGCT Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GGCT: view

Variants for GGCT Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GGCT Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000081672 -- 30,506,493(-) G/A upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000630186 -- 30,506,809(-) T/C upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000729865 -- 30,501,299(-) A/G intron_variant
rs1000801711 -- 30,501,465(-) C/G intron_variant
rs1000916490 -- 30,506,654(-) C/T upstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GGCT Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2456067 CNV deletion 19546169
nsv1068321 OTHER inversion 25765185
nsv1148830 OTHER inversion 26484159
nsv436557 CNV deletion 17901297
nsv5684 CNV insertion 18451855

Variation tolerance for GGCT Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 58.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.41; 8.91% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GGCT Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GGCT Gene

Disorders for GGCT Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for GGCT Gene - From: DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
spinocerebellar ataxia 10
  • sca10
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GGCT in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for GGCT

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GGCT: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GGCT Gene

Publications for GGCT Gene

  1. Crystal structure of Homo sapiens protein LOC79017. (PMID: 17932939) Bae E … Phillips GN (Proteins 2008) 2 3 4 58
  2. The identification and structural characterization of C7orf24 as gamma-glutamyl cyclotransferase. An essential enzyme in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. (PMID: 18515354) Oakley AJ … Board PG (The Journal of biological chemistry 2008) 2 3 4 58
  3. Risk of meningioma and common variation in genes related to innate immunity. (PMID: 20406964) Rajaraman P … Inskip PD (Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2010) 3 44 58
  4. Polymorphisms in innate immunity genes and risk of childhood leukemia. (PMID: 20438785) Han S … Kang D (Human immunology 2010) 3 44 58
  5. A novel 21-kDa cytochrome c-releasing factor is generated upon treatment of human leukemia U937 cells with geranylgeraniol. (PMID: 16765912) Masuda Y … Nakaya K (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2006) 3 4 58

Products for GGCT Gene

Sources for GGCT Gene

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