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Aliases for GCGR Gene

Aliases for GCGR Gene

  • Glucagon Receptor 2 3 3 5
  • GL-R 3 4
  • GGR 3

External Ids for GCGR Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GCGR Gene

  • GC17P079285
  • GC17P9I0091
  • GC17M9K0029
  • GC17P9P0057
  • GC17P8B0057
  • GC17P079763
  • GC17P075168

Summaries for GCGR Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GCGR Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a glucagon receptor that is important in controlling blood glucose levels. Defects in this gene are a cause of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM).[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

GeneCards Summary for GCGR Gene

GCGR (Glucagon Receptor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GCGR include Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent and Gcgr-Related Hyperglucagonemia. Among its related pathways are Presynaptic function of Kainate receptors and Metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GIPR.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GCGR Gene

  • G-protein coupled receptor for glucagon that plays a central role in the regulation of blood glucose levels and glucose homeostasis. Regulates the rate of hepatic glucose production by promoting glycogen hydrolysis and gluconeogenesis. Plays an important role in mediating the responses to fasting. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Promotes activation of adenylate cyclase. Besides, plays a role in signaling via a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system.

Tocris Summary for GCGR Gene

  • The glucagon receptor is a member of the glucagon receptor family that also includes GLP-1, GLP-2, secretin, GHRH and GIP receptors. The glucagon receptor regulates blood glucose levels and is predominantly expressed in the pancreas, liver and kidneys.

Gene Wiki entry for GCGR Gene

Additional gene information for GCGR Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GCGR Gene

Genomics for GCGR Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GCGR Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GCGR Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH17J081804 Promoter 0.7 EPDnew 650.7 0.0 -1 0.1 KLF1 EZH2 GCGR LOC105376789 LOC105371929
GH17J081700 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.9 -101.3 -101342 4.2 HDGF CLOCK MLX ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZBTB7B IRF4 YY1 POLR2B ENSG00000262049 ENSG00000262660 MRPL12 ARL16 HGS FAAP100 CEP131 ENSG00000260563 TEPSIN NARF-IT1
GH17J081682 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 11.7 -120.0 -119978 3.5 PKNOX1 SMAD1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 SLC30A9 POLR2B ZNF213 ARL16 HGS ALYREF FOXK2 LOC105371942 CCDC137 PDE6G NPLOC4 TSPAN10 P4HB
GH17J081864 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.5 +64.8 64811 8.9 MLX ZFP64 FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF143 SP3 NFYC ARHGDIA ENSG00000262413 HGS TBCD ENSG00000260563 NARF-IT1 TEPSIN CEP131 FAAP100 ENSG00000262652
GH17J081831 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 9 +29.3 29304 4.2 HDGF PKNOX1 CLOCK SMAD1 MLX ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A YBX1 DMAP1 MCRIP1 PPP1R27 TBCD OGFOD3 ENSG00000263321 P4HB NPLOC4 RFNG FAAP100 HEXDC
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around GCGR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Locations for GCGR Gene

Genomic Locations for GCGR Gene
chr17:81,804,132-81,814,013
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
9,882 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr17:79,762,008-79,771,889
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
9,882 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for GCGR Gene

Genes around GCGR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GCGR Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GCGR Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GCGR Gene

Proteins for GCGR Gene

  • Protein details for GCGR Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P47871-GLR_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Glucagon receptor
    Protein Accession:
    P47871
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q2M3M5

    Protein attributes for GCGR Gene

    Size:
    477 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    54009 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GCGR Gene

neXtProt entry for GCGR Gene

Post-translational modifications for GCGR Gene

  • Ligand-binding promotes phosphorylation of serine residues in the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. Phosphorylation is important for receptor endocytosis after ligand-binding.
  • Glycosylation at isoforms=78, Asn74, isoforms=59, and isoforms=46
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GCGR Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GCGR Gene

Domains & Families for GCGR Gene

Gene Families for GCGR Gene

HGNC:
IUPHAR :
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • G-protein coupled receptors
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted membrane proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GCGR Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P47871

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GLR_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 2 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 2 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GCGR: view

Function for GCGR Gene

Molecular function for GCGR Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for glucagon that plays a central role in the regulation of blood glucose levels and glucose homeostasis. Regulates the rate of hepatic glucose production by promoting glycogen hydrolysis and gluconeogenesis. Plays an important role in mediating the responses to fasting. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Promotes activation of adenylate cyclase. Besides, plays a role in signaling via a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glucagon receptor,G protein coupled,receptor

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GCGR Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GCGR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004888 transmembrane signaling receptor activity IEA --
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity IEA --
GO:0004967 glucagon receptor activity IDA,IEA 9287038
GO:0005085 guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity TAS --
GO:0017046 peptide hormone binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GCGR: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GCGR: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for GCGR Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for GCGR Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GCGR:

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GCGR

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GCGR Gene

Localization for GCGR Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GCGR Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Note=Is rapidly internalized after ligand-binding. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:9287038}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GCGR gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
endosome 2
extracellular 1
peroxisome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Golgi apparatus (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GCGR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005768 endosome IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane IMP 28514451
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane TAS,IEA 8144028
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GCGR: view

Pathways & Interactions for GCGR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GCGR: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for GCGR Gene

Activates:
Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GCGR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006091 generation of precursor metabolites and energy TAS 7773293
GO:0006887 exocytosis IEA --
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007166 cell surface receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA,TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GCGR: view

Drugs & Compounds for GCGR Gene

(28) Drugs for GCGR Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, DGIdb, IUPHAR, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Glucagon recombinant Approved Pharma binder, Target, agonist 0
calcium Approved Nutra 0
L-168,049 Pharma Antagonist Potent, orally active human glucagon receptor antagonist 0
des-His1-[Glu9]-Glucagon (1-29) amide Pharma Glucagon receptor antagonist 0
[<sup>125</sup>I]glucagon (human, mouse, rat) Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 0

(9) Additional Compounds for GCGR Gene - From: Novoseek and IUPHAR

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
N-[3-cyano-6-(1,1-dimethylpropyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1-benzothien-2-yl]-2-ethylbutanamide
Antagonist

(2) Tocris Compounds for GCGR Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
des-His1-[Glu9]-Glucagon (1-29) amide Glucagon receptor antagonist 110084-95-2
L-168,049 Potent, orally active human glucagon receptor antagonist 191034-25-0

(14) ApexBio Compounds for GCGR Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
BETP 1371569-69-5
des-His1-[Glu9]-Glucagon (1-29) amide 110084-95-2
Exendin-3 (9-39) amide 133514-43-9
GLP-1 (9-36) amide 161748-29-4
GLP-2 (human) 223460-79-5
glucagon receptor antagonists 1 Glucagon receptor antagonist,highly potent 503559-84-0
glucagon receptor antagonists 2 Glucagon receptor antagonist,highly potent 202917-18-8
glucagon receptor antagonists 3 202917-17-7
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (1-37) (human, rat) 87805-34-3
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (7-36) amide (human, rat) 107444-51-9
L-168,049 191034-25-0
Methylprednisolone Sodium Succinate 2375-03-3
MK 0893 Glucagon receptor/IGF-1R antagonist 870823-12-4
Oxyntomodulin 62340-29-8
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GCGR: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for GCGR Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GCGR Gene

(5) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(6) Additional mRNA sequences :
(14) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(6) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GCGR Gene

Glucagon receptor:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GCGR

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GCGR Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GCGR Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GCGR
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GCGR

Expression for GCGR Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GCGR Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GCGR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x40.3) and Kidney - Cortex (x7.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GCGR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Frontal cortex (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for GCGR Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for GCGR Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GCGR Gene:

GCGR

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GCGR Gene:

Hs.208

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GCGR Gene

  • Liver(4.6)
  • Pancreas(2.3)
  • Kidney(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GCGR: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GCGR Gene

Orthologs for GCGR Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GCGR Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GCGR 34 33
  • 99.02 (n)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GCGR 34 33
  • 86.08 (n)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GCGR 34 33
  • 84.31 (n)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gcgr 16 34 33
  • 82.5 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gcgr 33
  • 82.5 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GCGR 34
  • 70 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GIPR 34 33
  • 77.31 (n)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GCGR 34
  • 63 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gcgr 33
  • 63.5 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia gcgrp-A 33
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii LOC562973 33
  • 62.63 (n)
gcgra 34
  • 45 (a)
OneToMany
gcgrb 34
  • 45 (a)
OneToMany
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta EG:BACR25B3.3 35
  • 28 (a)
Species where no ortholog for GCGR was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GCGR Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GCGR (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GCGR (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GCGR: view image

Paralogs for GCGR Gene

Paralogs for GCGR Gene

(13) SIMAP similar genes for GCGR Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

  • GLR_HUMAN
  • I3L1L8_HUMAN
  • I3L454_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GCGR: view

Variants for GCGR Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GCGR Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1801483 pathogenic, Diabetes mellitus type 2 81,809,839(+) G/A 5_prime_UTR_variant, coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1000281836 -- 81,803,683(+) GGGG/GG upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000679558 -- 81,812,336(+) T/C intron_variant
rs1001024204 -- 81,808,741(+) G/A/C/T genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001115696 -- 81,812,121(+) G/A intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GCGR Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv952390 CNV deletion 24416366
nsv470620 CNV loss 18288195
nsv428351 CNV gain 18775914

Variation tolerance for GCGR Gene

Gene Damage Index Score: 2.02; 37.23% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GCGR Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
GCGR
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
GCGR

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GCGR Gene

Disorders for GCGR Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(5) MalaCards diseases for GCGR Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GCGR in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for GCGR

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GCGR: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GCGR Gene

Publications for GCGR Gene

  1. Altered renal sodium handling and hypertension in men carrying the glucagon receptor gene (Gly40Ser) variant. (PMID: 11692154) Strazzullo P … Cappuccio FP (Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany) 2001) 3 22 44 58
  2. [Gly40Ser mutation of glucagon receptor gene and NIDDM in Han nationality]. (PMID: 12536714) Deng H … Pan Q (Hunan yi ke da xue xue bao = Hunan yike daxue xuebao = Bulletin of Hunan Medical University 2001) 3 22 44 58
  3. A mutation in the glucagon receptor gene (Gly40Ser): heterogeneity in the association with diabetes mellitus. (PMID: 7589886) Fujisawa T … Ogihara T (Diabetologia 1995) 3 4 44 58
  4. Localization of the glucagon receptor gene to human chromosome band 17q25. (PMID: 8020989) Menzel S … Bell GI (Genomics 1994) 2 3 4 58
  5. Cloning and expression of a human glucagon receptor. (PMID: 7507321) MacNeil DJ … Graziano MP (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1994) 3 4 22 58

Products for GCGR Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for GCGR

Sources for GCGR Gene

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