Aliases for GCG Gene
External Ids for GCG Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GCG Gene
The protein encoded by this gene is actually a preproprotein that is cleaved into four distinct mature peptides. One of these, glucagon, is a pancreatic hormone that counteracts the glucose-lowering action of insulin by stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Glucagon is a ligand for a specific G-protein linked receptor whose signalling pathway controls cell proliferation. Two of the other peptides are secreted from gut endocrine cells and promote nutrient absorption through distinct mechanisms. Finally, the fourth peptide is similar to glicentin, an active enteroglucagon. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GeneCards Summary for GCG Gene
GCG (Glucagon) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GCG include Hyperglycemia and Hypoglycemia. Among its related pathways are Presynaptic function of Kainate receptors and Incretin synthesis, secretion, and inactivation. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and hormone activity.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GCG Gene
Glucagon plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis. Regulates blood glucose by increasing gluconeogenesis and decreasing glycolysis. A counterregulatory hormone of insulin, raises plasma glucose levels in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Plays an important role in initiating and maintaining hyperglycemic conditions in diabetes.
GLP-1 is a potent stimulator of glucose-dependent insulin release. Play important roles on gastric motility and the suppression of plasma glucagon levels. May be involved in the suppression of satiety and stimulation of glucose disposal in peripheral tissues, independent of the actions of insulin. Have growth-promoting activities on intestinal epithelium. May also regulate the hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) via effects on LH, TSH, CRH, oxytocin, and vasopressin secretion. Increases islet mass through stimulation of islet neogenesis and pancreatic beta cell proliferation. Inhibits beta cell apoptosis.
GLP-2 stimulates intestinal growth and up-regulates villus height in the small intestine, concomitant with increased crypt cell proliferation and decreased enterocyte apoptosis. The gastrointestinal tract, from the stomach to the colon is the principal target for GLP-2 action. Plays a key role in nutrient homeostasis, enhancing nutrient assimilation through enhanced gastrointestinal function, as well as increasing nutrient disposal. Stimulates intestinal glucose transport and decreases mucosal permeability.
Oxyntomodulin significantly reduces food intake. Inhibits gastric emptying in humans. Suppression of gastric emptying may lead to increased gastric distension, which may contribute to satiety by causing a sensation of fullness.
Glicentin may modulate gastric acid secretion and the gastro-pyloro-duodenal activity. May play an important role in intestinal mucosal growth in the early period of life.