Gastrin is a hormone whose main function is to stimulate secretion of hydrochloric acid by the gastric mucosa, which results in gastrin formation inhibition. This hormone also acts as a mitogenic factor for gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Gastrin has two biologically active peptide forms, G34 and G17. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] See more...

Aliases for GAST Gene

Aliases for GAST Gene

  • Gastrin 2 3 4 5
  • Preprogastrin 2 3
  • GAS 3 4
  • GAST 5

External Ids for GAST Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GAST Gene

  • GAS

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GAST Gene

  • GC17P037124
  • GC17P039868
  • GC17P035631

Summaries for GAST Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GAST Gene

  • Gastrin is a hormone whose main function is to stimulate secretion of hydrochloric acid by the gastric mucosa, which results in gastrin formation inhibition. This hormone also acts as a mitogenic factor for gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Gastrin has two biologically active peptide forms, G34 and G17. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GAST Gene

GAST (Gastrin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GAST include Gastritis and Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome. Among its related pathways are Secretion of Hydrochloric Acid in Parietal Cells and RET signaling. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include hormone activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for GAST Gene

  • Gastrin stimulates the stomach mucosa to produce and secrete hydrochloric acid and the pancreas to secrete its digestive enzymes. It also stimulates smooth muscle contraction and increases blood circulation and water secretion in the stomach and intestine.

Gene Wiki entry for GAST Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for GAST Gene

Genomics for GAST Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for GAST Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH17J041710 Enhancer 0.6 Ensembl 600.7 -1.4 -1430 0.6 RFX1 PRDM1 POLR2A CEBPB CTBP1 BMI1 NFE2 ZNF316 MAFG MAFK GAST HAP1 EIF1 lnc-GAST-2
GH17J041712 Promoter 0.4 EPDnew 600.7 0.0 -19 0.1 KLF1 GAST EIF1 lnc-GAST-2
GH17J041737 Promoter/Enhancer 1.7 VISTA EPDnew ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 11.8 +27.0 27044 3.7 ZNF221 HNRNPL GATAD2A CTCF ATF7 PRDM10 ZNF629 TFE3 KDM1A ZNF692 HAP1 JUP GAST P3H4 FKBP10 KLHL11 KAT2A HSALNG0116457
GH17J041894 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.8 +183.3 183289 2.8 PRDM10 ZNF629 PRDM1 SP1 ZNF600 CEBPA CEBPB ZNF639 ZNF10 ZEB1 NT5C3B KLHL11 KLHL10 GAST CNP FKBP10 piR-43468 piR-54592-127 ACLY
GH17J041891 Enhancer 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10 +179.8 179798 2 FOXA2 OSR2 FOXP1 ZNF18 FOSL2 HNF4A POLR2A RARA NFIA JUND NT5C3B KLHL11 KLHL10 HAP1 RN7SL399P P3H4 FKBP10 CNP JUP GAST
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GAST on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for GAST

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GAST gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • ATF-2
  • c-Jun
  • C/EBPbeta
  • IRF-1
  • Sp1
  • STAT5A

Genomic Locations for GAST Gene

Genomic Locations for GAST Gene
chr17:41,712,331-41,715,969
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
3,639 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr17:39,868,578-39,872,221
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
3,644 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for GAST Gene

Genes around GAST on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GAST Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GAST Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GAST Gene

Proteins for GAST Gene

  • Protein details for GAST Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P01350-GAST_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Gastrin
    Protein Accession:
    P01350
    Secondary Accessions:
    • P78463
    • P78464

    Protein attributes for GAST Gene

    Size:
    101 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    11394 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GAST Gene

neXtProt entry for GAST Gene

Post-translational modifications for GAST Gene

  • Two different processing pathways probably exist in antral G-cells. In the dominant pathway progastrin is cleaved at three sites resulting in two major bioactive gastrins, gastrin-34 and gastrin-17. In the putative alternative pathway, progastrin may be processed only at the most C-terminal dibasic site resulting in the synthesis of gastrin-71.
  • Sulfation enhances proteolytic processing, and blocks peptide degradation. Levels of sulfation differ between proteolytically-cleaved gastrins. Thus, gastrin-6 is almost 73% sulfated, whereas the larger gastrins are less than 50% sulfated. Sulfation levels are also tissue-specific.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for GAST Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GAST Gene

Domains & Families for GAST Gene

Gene Families for GAST Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for GAST Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • Gastrin/cholecystokinin peptide hormone
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GAST Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Gastrin (GAST_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P01350

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GAST_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the gastrin/cholecystokinin family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the gastrin/cholecystokinin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GAST: view

Function for GAST Gene

Molecular function for GAST Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Gastrin stimulates the stomach mucosa to produce and secrete hydrochloric acid and the pancreas to secrete its digestive enzymes. It also stimulates smooth muscle contraction and increases blood circulation and water secretion in the stomach and intestine.

LifeMap Function Summary for GAST Gene

It affects the following cells:

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GAST Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GAST Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005179 hormone activity TAS,IBA 21873635
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 7681836
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GAST: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GAST: view

Animal Models for GAST Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GAST:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for GAST

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GAST Gene

Localization for GAST Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GAST Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GAST gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
cytosol 2
lysosome 2
peroxisome 1
endosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GAST Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GAST: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GAST Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GAST Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GAST: view

Pathways by source for GAST Gene

1 KEGG pathway for GAST Gene
2 Qiagen pathways for GAST Gene
  • CCKBR-Gastrin Stimulated Signaling
  • WNT Signaling

SIGNOR curated interactions for GAST Gene

Activates:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GAST Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction NAS 7488110
GO:0007186 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0032094 response to food IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GAST: view

Drugs & Compounds for GAST Gene

(91) Drugs for GAST Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Oxetacaine Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, inhibition of synthesis 0
G17DT Investigational Pharma 0

(54) Additional Compounds for GAST Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GAST: view

Transcripts for GAST Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GAST Gene

1 REFSEQ mRNAs :
5 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
1 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for GAST

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GAST Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GAST Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GAST

Expression for GAST Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for GAST Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GAST Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Stomach (x48.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GAST Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Stomach (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for GAST Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for GAST Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for GAST

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GAST Gene:

Hs.2681

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GAST Gene

  • Stomach(4.9)
  • Intestine(3.8)
  • Pancreas(3.1)
  • Blood(3.1)
  • Nervous system(2.9)
  • Gall bladder(2.6)
  • Liver(2.5)
  • Thyroid gland(2.5)
  • Muscle(2.3)
  • Lymph node(2.2)
  • Kidney(2.2)
  • Adrenal gland(2.1)
  • Urine(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GAST: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GAST Gene

Orthologs for GAST Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of mammals.

Orthologs for GAST Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GAST 30 31
  • 100 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GAST 30 31
  • 87.54 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GAST 30 31
  • 82.49 (n)
OneToOne
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gast 30 17 31
  • 80.67 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gast 30
  • 76.9 (n)
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GAST 31
  • 61 (a)
OneToOne
Species where no ortholog for GAST was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Tropical Clawed Frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for GAST Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GAST (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GAST (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GAST: view image

Paralogs for GAST Gene

No data available for Paralogs for GAST Gene

Variants for GAST Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for GAST Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 17 pos Variation AA Info Type
742174 Likely Benign: not provided 41,715,616(+) G/A SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT
771026 Benign: not provided 41,715,552(+) A/G MISSENSE_VARIANT
rs34309618 - p.Arg3Pro

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for GAST Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GAST Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2758690 CNV gain+loss 17122850
nsv1109074 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1146669 OTHER inversion 26484159

Variation tolerance for GAST Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 54.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.60; 12.91% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GAST Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
GAST

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GAST Gene

Disorders for GAST Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(115) MalaCards diseases for GAST Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
gastritis
  • acute gastric mucosal erosion
zollinger-ellison syndrome
  • gastrinoma
atrophic gastritis
  • gastric atrophy
duodenal ulcer
  • curling ulcer
duodenitis
  • hemorrhagic duodenitis
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GAST in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GAST: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GAST Gene

Publications for GAST Gene

  1. Post-poly(Glu) cleavage and degradation modified by O-sulfated tyrosine: a novel post-translational processing mechanism. (PMID: 7530658) Rehfeld JF … Johnsen AH (The EMBO journal 1995) 3 4 23
  2. Identification of gastrin component I as gastrin-71. The largest possible bioactive progastrin product. (PMID: 8055952) Rehfeld JF … Johnsen AH (European journal of biochemistry 1994) 3 4 23
  3. Preprandial single oral dose of sitagliptin does not affect circulating ghrelin and gastrin levels in normal subjects. (PMID: 20145424) Huang CL … Weng SF (Pharmacology 2010) 3 23
  4. Chromogranin A as a useful neuroendocrine marker in patients with autoimmune Addison's disease. (PMID: 19794299) El Ali Z … Grzymisławski M (Journal of endocrinological investigation 2010) 3 23
  5. [Relationships of the mRNA and protein expression of gastrin with Fas/FasL and caspases in colorectal carcinoma]. (PMID: 19031134) Mao JD … Huang H (Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery 2008) 3 23

Products for GAST Gene

  • Signalway ELISA kits for GAST
  • Signalway Proteins for GAST

Sources for GAST Gene