The neuropeptide galanin modulates a variety of physiologic processes including cognition/memory, sensory/pain processing, hormone secretion, and feeding behavior. The human galanin receptors are G protein-coupled receptors that functionally couple to their intracellular effector through distinct signaling pathways. GALR3 is found in many tissues and may be expressed as 1.4-,... See more...

Aliases for GALR3 Gene

Aliases for GALR3 Gene

  • Galanin Receptor 3 2 3 5
  • Galanin Receptor Type 3 3 4
  • GAL3-R 3 4
  • GALR-3 3 4
  • Galanin Receptor, Family Member 3 3
  • GALNR3 4
  • GALR3 5

External Ids for GALR3 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GALR3 Gene

  • GC22P034833
  • GC22P036462
  • GC22P036543
  • GC22P038219
  • GC22P021186
  • GC22P037824
  • GC22P037825
  • GC22P037840
  • GC22P037858

Summaries for GALR3 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GALR3 Gene

  • The neuropeptide galanin modulates a variety of physiologic processes including cognition/memory, sensory/pain processing, hormone secretion, and feeding behavior. The human galanin receptors are G protein-coupled receptors that functionally couple to their intracellular effector through distinct signaling pathways. GALR3 is found in many tissues and may be expressed as 1.4-, 2.4-, and 5-kb transcripts [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GALR3 Gene

GALR3 (Galanin Receptor 3) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors and Signaling by GPCR. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include G protein-coupled receptor activity and galanin receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GALR1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for GALR3 Gene

  • Receptor for the hormone galanin (PubMed:25691535). Receptor for the hormone spexin-1 (PubMed:24517231).

Tocris Summary for GALR3 Gene

  • Galanin is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and the endocrine system. Three different galanin receptors (GAL1-3) have been identified. Disruption of galanin expression or galanin receptor signaling is seen in many multifactoral conditions.

Gene Wiki entry for GALR3 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for GALR3 Gene

Genomics for GALR3 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for GALR3 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH22J037821 Enhancer 0.8 Ensembl ENCODE 275.7 -1.0 -981 1.2 ZNF341 SAP130 SCRT1 TAF1 ZNF652 ELF3 EGR1 SP1 CTCF RAD21 GALR3 HSALNG0135356 GCAT HSALNG0135354
GH22J037823 Enhancer 0.4 Ensembl 250.7 +0.4 419 0.4 HNRNPL EGR2 HIC1 GALR3 HSALNG0135356 EIF3L
GH22J037824 Enhancer 0.3 ENCODE 250.7 +1.4 1427 0.2 POLR2A CTCF GALR3 HSALNG0135356 HSALNG0135357 EIF3L
GH22J037904 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 22.5 +83.2 83205 4.8 ZNF600 MYC JUND ZNF592 ATF2 POLR2A ZIC2 ZBTB10 YY1 CTCF HSALNG0135364 MICALL1 DDX17 GALR3 CSNK1E ENSG00000273076 CBY1 ENSG00000230149 BAIAP2L2 ENSG00000272669
GH22J037801 Promoter/Enhancer 2.6 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 18.8 -17.9 -17892 7.4 SP1 ZNF207 IKZF1 MYC NCOR1 ZNF600 SIX5 SSRP1 ZNF580 ZNF592 GCAT H1-0 lnc-ANKRD54-1 DDX17 EIF3L ENSG00000273076 ENSG00000272669 GALR3 ENSG00000225450 TRIOBP
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GALR3 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for GALR3

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GALR3 gene promoter:
  • E2F-1
  • E2F-2
  • E2F-3a
  • E2F-4
  • E2F-5
  • GATA-2
  • Max
  • Pax-4a
  • Pax-5
  • PPAR-gamma1

Genomic Locations for GALR3 Gene

Latest Assembly
chr22:37,823,382-37,825,485
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
2,104 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Previous Assembly
chr22:38,219,389-38,221,492
(GRCh37/hg19 by Entrez Gene)
Size:
2,104 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

chr22:38,219,389-38,221,502
(GRCh37/hg19 by Ensembl)
Size:
2,114 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for GALR3 Gene

Genes around GALR3 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GALR3 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GALR3 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GALR3 Gene

Proteins for GALR3 Gene

  • Protein details for GALR3 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    O60755-GALR3_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Galanin receptor type 3
    Protein Accession:
    O60755
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q53YJ4

    Protein attributes for GALR3 Gene

    Size:
    368 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    39573 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for GALR3 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GALR3 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn6
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GALR3 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GALR3 Gene

Domains & Families for GALR3 Gene

Gene Families for GALR3 Gene

HGNC:
IUPHAR :
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • G-protein coupled receptors
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for GALR3 Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • Galanin receptor signature
  • Galanin 3 receptor signature

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GALR3 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Galanin receptor type 3 (GALR3_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

O60755

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GALR3_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GALR3: view

Function for GALR3 Gene

Molecular function for GALR3 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor for the hormone galanin (PubMed:25691535). Receptor for the hormone spexin-1 (PubMed:24517231).
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
galanin receptor 3,G protein coupled receptor superfamily,linked to voltage gated calcium channel,expressed in testis,adrenal gland,pancreas,predominantly signaling through inhibition of adenylate cyclase

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GALR3 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GALR3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004930 G protein-coupled receptor activity IEA --
GO:0004966 galanin receptor activity TAS,IDA 9832121
GO:0008528 G protein-coupled peptide receptor activity IBA 21873635
GO:0017046 peptide hormone binding IPI 9832121
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALR3: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GALR3: view

Animal Models for GALR3 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GALR3:

miRNA for GALR3 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GALR3

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for GALR3

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GALR3 Gene

Localization for GALR3 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALR3 Gene

Cell membrane. Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GALR3 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 2
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1
nucleus 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1
cytosol 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GALR3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane IBA 21873635
GO:0005929 cilium IDA 28154160
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane TAS 9722565
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALR3: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GALR3 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GALR3 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GALR3: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for GALR3 Gene

Activates:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GALR3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0007187 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger IDA 9832121
GO:0007188 adenylate cyclase-modulating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway IBA 21873635
GO:0007194 negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALR3: view

Drugs & Compounds for GALR3 Gene

(33) Drugs for GALR3 Gene - From: ApexBio, DGIdb, IUPHAR, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
M40 Pharma Antagonist 0
M617 Pharma Agonist 0
M871 Pharma Antagonist 0
Galanin (1-30) (human) Pharma Endogenous galanin receptor agonist 0
Galnon Pharma Non-selective galanin receptor agonist 0

(5) Tocris Compounds for GALR3 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Galanin (1-15) (porcine, rat) Galanin receptor agonist peptide 112747-70-3
Galanin (1-29) (rat, mouse) Non-selective galanin receptor agonist 114547-31-8
Galanin (1-30) (human) Endogenous galanin receptor agonist 119418-04-1
Galanin (2-29) (rat) Selective GAL2 peptide agonist 141696-11-9
Galnon Non-selective galanin receptor agonist 475115-35-6

(6) ApexBio Compounds for GALR3 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Galanin (1-30) (human) 119418-04-1
Galnon 475115-35-6
M 1145 1172089-00-7
M40 143896-17-7
M617 860790-38-1
M871 908844-75-7
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GALR3: view

Drug products for research

Transcripts for GALR3 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GALR3 Gene

1 REFSEQ mRNAs :
3 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
1 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for GALR3

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GALR3 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GALR3 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GALR3

Expression for GALR3 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for GALR3 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GALR3 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Cerebellum (x5.3), Brain - Cerebellar Hemisphere (x5.2), Pancreas (x4.9), and Testis (x4.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GALR3 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Plasma (41.2) and Heart (27.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for GALR3 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for GALR3 Gene

- Elite partner

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for GALR3

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GALR3 Gene:

Hs.158353

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GALR3 Gene

  • Eye(4)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GALR3: view

Primer products for research

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GALR3 Gene

Orthologs for GALR3 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GALR3 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GALR3 29 30
  • 99 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GALR3 29 30
  • 92.75 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GALR3 29 30
  • 91.67 (n)
OneToOne
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Galr3 29 16
  • 87.07 (n)
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Galr3 29
  • 86.41 (n)
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GALR3 30
  • 66 (a)
OneToOne
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 30
  • 29 (a)
ManyToMany
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GALR3 29 30
  • 67.79 (n)
ManyToMany
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 30
  • 49 (a)
ManyToMany
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii si:ch73-52e11.1 30
  • 44 (a)
ManyToMany
Fruit Fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta AR-2 30
  • 27 (a)
ManyToMany
AlstR 30 31
  • 26 (a)
ManyToMany
Worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea ZK455.3 31
  • 30 (a)
npr-9 30
  • 22 (a)
OneToMany
Sea Squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 30
  • 32 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for GALR3 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Tropical Clawed Frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GALR3 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GALR3 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GALR3 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GALR3: view image
Alliance of Genome Resources:
Additional Orthologs for GALR3

Paralogs for GALR3 Gene

(10) SIMAP similar genes for GALR3 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

  • GALR3_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GALR3: view

Variants for GALR3 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for GALR3 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 22 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs8137541 -- p.Arg342Gly
rs8137553 -- p.Gln349Arg

dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for variants without ClinVar clinical significance for GALR3 Gene

All consequence types are included: molecular consequences (e.g. missense, synonymous), and location-based (e.g. intron, upstream).

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GALR3 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2758838 CNV loss 17122850

Variation tolerance for GALR3 Gene

Gene Damage Index Score: 3.22; 52.33% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GALR3 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
GALR3
Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)
GALR3

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assays for research

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALR3 Gene

Disorders for GALR3 Gene

Additional Disease Information for GALR3

Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
Atlas
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
Open Targets Platform

No disorders were found for GALR3 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GALR3 Gene

Publications for GALR3 Gene

  1. Molecular characterization and expression of cloned human galanin receptors GALR2 and GALR3. (PMID: 9832121) Kolakowski LF … O'Dowd BF (Journal of neurochemistry 1998) 2 3 4 22
  2. Alcoholism is associated with GALR3 but not two other galanin receptor genes. (PMID: 17083333) Belfer I … Enoch MA (Genes, brain, and behavior 2007) 3 22 40
  3. Cloned human and rat galanin GALR3 receptors. Pharmacology and activation of G-protein inwardly rectifying K+ channels. (PMID: 9722565) Smith KE … Jones KA (The Journal of biological chemistry 1998) 2 3 4
  4. Structural organization and chromosomal localization of three human galanin receptor genes. (PMID: 9928159) Iismaa TP … Shine J (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1998) 3 4 22
  5. Coevolution of the spexin/galanin/kisspeptin family: Spexin activates galanin receptor type II and III. (PMID: 24517231) Kim DK … Seong JY (Endocrinology 2014) 3 4

Products for GALR3 Gene

Sources for GALR3 Gene