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Aliases for GALR3 Gene

Aliases for GALR3 Gene

  • Galanin Receptor 3 2 3 5
  • GAL3-R 3 4
  • GALR-3 3 4
  • Galanin Receptor, Family Member 3 3
  • Galanin Receptor Type 3 3
  • GALNR3 4

External Ids for GALR3 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GALR3 Gene

  • GC22P034833
  • GC22P036462
  • GC22P036543
  • GC22P038219
  • GC22P021186

Summaries for GALR3 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GALR3 Gene

  • The neuropeptide galanin modulates a variety of physiologic processes including cognition/memory, sensory/pain processing, hormone secretion, and feeding behavior. The human galanin receptors are G protein-coupled receptors that functionally couple to their intracellular effector through distinct signaling pathways. GALR3 is found in many tissues and may be expressed as 1.4-, 2.4-, and 5-kb transcripts [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GALR3 Gene

GALR3 (Galanin Receptor 3) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors and Signaling by GPCR. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and galanin receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GALR2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALR3 Gene

  • Receptor for the hormone galanin (PubMed:25691535). Receptor for the hormone spexin-1 (PubMed:24517231).

Tocris Summary for GALR3 Gene

  • Galanin is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and the endocrine system. Three different galanin receptors (GAL1-3) have been identified. Disruption of galanin expression or galanin receptor signaling is seen in many multifactoral conditions.

Gene Wiki entry for GALR3 Gene

Additional gene information for GALR3 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GALR3 Gene

Genomics for GALR3 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GALR3 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GALR3 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH22J037821 Enhancer 0.6 ENCODE 675.7 +0.3 319 0.8 CTCF SCRT1 ELF3 SAP130 ELF1 RAD21 SP1 XRCC5 SCRT2 ZNF341 GALR3 GC22P037822 GC22M043015
GH22J037904 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 22.5 +84.6 84578 4.8 FOXA2 SIN3A FEZF1 ZNF2 YY1 ZNF213 ZNF143 FOS SP3 ZNF592 MICALL1 DDX17 GALR3 CSNK1E ENSG00000273076 CBY1 ENSG00000230149 BAIAP2L2 ENSG00000272669 ENSG00000278948
GH22J037801 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 18.8 -16.5 -16479 7.3 CLOCK MLX ZFP64 DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF143 SP3 GCAT H1F0 GALR3 GGA1 DDX17 ANKRD54 MIR659 EIF3L CSNK1E PLA2G6
GH22J037931 Enhancer 1.6 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 23.8 +111.1 111114 2.9 HDGF MLX ARNT ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 ZNF2 IRF4 ZNF207 ZNF143 GALR3 EIF3L DDX17 ENSG00000230149 ENSG00000273076 ENSG00000272669 TRIOBP ENSG00000225450 RNU6-900P MICALL1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GALR3 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GALR3 gene promoter:
  • E2F-5
  • E2F-1
  • E2F-2
  • E2F-3a
  • E2F-4
  • Max
  • GATA-2
  • Pax-5
  • Pax-4a
  • PPAR-gamma1

Genomic Locations for GALR3 Gene

Genomic Locations for GALR3 Gene
3,857 bases
Plus strand
2,114 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GALR3 Gene

Genes around GALR3 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GALR3 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GALR3 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GALR3 Gene

Proteins for GALR3 Gene

  • Protein details for GALR3 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Galanin receptor type 3
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q53YJ4

    Protein attributes for GALR3 Gene

    368 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    39573 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for GALR3 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GALR3 Gene

  • Glycosylation at isoforms=6
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GALR3 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GALR3 Gene

Domains & Families for GALR3 Gene

Gene Families for GALR3 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • G-protein coupled receptors
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GALR3 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GALR3: view

Function for GALR3 Gene

Molecular function for GALR3 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor for the hormone galanin (PubMed:25691535). Receptor for the hormone spexin-1 (PubMed:24517231).
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
galanin receptor 3,G protein coupled receptor superfamily,linked to voltage gated calcium channel,expressed in testis,adrenal gland,pancreas,predominantly signaling through inhibition of adenylate cyclase

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GALR3 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GALR3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity IEA --
GO:0004966 galanin receptor activity IDA,TAS 9832121
GO:0008528 G-protein coupled peptide receptor activity IBA --
GO:0017046 peptide hormone binding IPI 9832121
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALR3: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GALR3: view

Animal Models for GALR3 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GALR3:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for GALR3 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GALR3

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GALR3

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GALR3 Gene

Localization for GALR3 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALR3 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GALR3 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GALR3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane IBA --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane TAS 9722565
GO:0097730 non-motile cilium IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALR3: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GALR3 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GALR3 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GALR3: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GALR3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0007187 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger IDA 9832121
GO:0007188 adenylate cyclase-modulating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IBA --
GO:0007194 negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALR3: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GALR3 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GALR3 Gene

(33) Drugs for GALR3 Gene - From: ApexBio, DGIdb, IUPHAR, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
M40 Pharma Antagonist 0
M617 Pharma Agonist 0
M871 Pharma Antagonist 0
Galanin (1-30) (human) Pharma Endogenous galanin receptor agonist 0
Galnon Pharma Agonist Non-selective galanin receptor agonist 0

(5) Tocris Compounds for GALR3 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Galanin (1-15) (porcine, rat) Galanin receptor agonist peptide 112747-70-3
Galanin (1-29) (rat, mouse) Non-selective galanin receptor agonist 114547-31-8
Galanin (1-30) (human) Endogenous galanin receptor agonist 119418-04-1
Galanin (2-29) (rat) Selective GAL2 peptide agonist 141696-11-9
Galnon Non-selective galanin receptor agonist 475115-35-6
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GALR3: view

Transcripts for GALR3 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GALR3 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(3) Additional mRNA sequences :
(8) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GALR3 Gene

Galanin receptor 3:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GALR3

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GALR3 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GALR3 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GALR3 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GALR3 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GALR3 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Cerebellum (x5.3), Brain - Cerebellar Hemisphere (x5.2), Pancreas (x4.9), and Testis (x4.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GALR3 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Plasma (41.2) and Heart (27.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for GALR3 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GALR3 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GALR3 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GALR3 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GALR3 Gene

  • Eye(4)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GALR3: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GALR3 Gene

Orthologs for GALR3 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GALR3 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GALR3 34 33
  • 99 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GALR3 34 33
  • 92.75 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GALR3 34 33
  • 91.67 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Galr3 16 33
  • 87.07 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Galr3 33
  • 86.41 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GALR3 34
  • 66 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 29 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GALR3 34 33
  • 67.79 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 49 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii si:ch73-52e11.1 34
  • 44 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta AR-2 34
  • 27 (a)
AlstR 34 35
  • 26 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea ZK455.3 35
  • 30 (a)
npr-9 34
  • 22 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 32 (a)
Species where no ortholog for GALR3 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GALR3 Gene

Gene Tree for GALR3 (if available)
Gene Tree for GALR3 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GALR3: view image

Paralogs for GALR3 Gene

Paralogs for GALR3 Gene

(10) SIMAP similar genes for GALR3 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GALR3: view

Variants for GALR3 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GALR3 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 22 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000814605 -- 37,821,843(+) C/G upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001101359 -- 37,822,131(+) T/C upstream_transcript_variant
rs1002268151 -- 37,822,432(+) G/A upstream_transcript_variant
rs1003295047 -- 37,823,933(+) C/T intron_variant
rs1004727704 -- 37,824,387(+) C/T intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GALR3 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2758838 CNV loss 17122850

Variation tolerance for GALR3 Gene

Gene Damage Index Score: 3.22; 52.33% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GALR3 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALR3 Gene

Disorders for GALR3 Gene

Additional Disease Information for GALR3

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

No disorders were found for GALR3 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GALR3 Gene

Publications for GALR3 Gene

  1. Molecular characterization and expression of cloned human galanin receptors GALR2 and GALR3. (PMID: 9832121) Kolakowski LF … O'Dowd BF (Journal of neurochemistry 1998) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Alcoholism is associated with GALR3 but not two other galanin receptor genes. (PMID: 17083333) Belfer I … Enoch MA (Genes, brain, and behavior 2007) 3 22 44 58
  3. Cloned human and rat galanin GALR3 receptors. Pharmacology and activation of G-protein inwardly rectifying K+ channels. (PMID: 9722565) Smith KE … Jones KA (The Journal of biological chemistry 1998) 2 3 4 58
  4. Structural organization and chromosomal localization of three human galanin receptor genes. (PMID: 9928159) Iismaa TP … Shine J (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1998) 3 4 22 58
  5. Coevolution of the spexin/galanin/kisspeptin family: Spexin activates galanin receptor type II and III. (PMID: 24517231) Kim DK … Seong JY (Endocrinology 2014) 3 4 58

Products for GALR3 Gene

Sources for GALR3 Gene

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