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Aliases for GALR2 Gene

Aliases for GALR2 Gene

  • Galanin Receptor 2 2 3 5
  • GAL2-R 3 4
  • GALNR2 3 4
  • GALR-2 3 4
  • Galanin Receptor Type 2 3

External Ids for GALR2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GALR2 Gene

  • GC17U990138
  • GC17P074534
  • GC17P074668
  • GC17P074648
  • GC17P071582
  • GC17P074070
  • GC17P069499

Summaries for GALR2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GALR2 Gene

  • Galanin is an important neuromodulator present in the brain, gastrointestinal system, and hypothalamopituitary axis. It is a 30-amino acid non-C-terminally amidated peptide that potently stimulates growth hormone secretion, inhibits cardiac vagal slowing of heart rate, abolishes sinus arrhythmia, and inhibits postprandial gastrointestinal motility. The actions of galanin are mediated through interaction with specific membrane receptors that are members of the 7-transmembrane family of G protein-coupled receptors. GALR2 interacts with the N-terminal residues of the galanin peptide. The primary signaling mechanism for GALR2 is through the phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathway (via Gq), in contrast to GALR1, which communicates its intracellular signal by inhibition of adenylyl cyclase through Gi. However, it has been demonstrated that GALR2 couples efficiently to both the Gq and Gi proteins to simultaneously activate 2 independent signal transduction pathways. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GALR2 Gene

GALR2 (Galanin Receptor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors and Signaling by GPCR. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and galanin receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GALR3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALR2 Gene

  • Receptor for the hormone galanin and GALP. Receptor for the hormone spexin-1 (PubMed:24517231). The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that activate the phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathway (via G(q)) and that inhibit adenylyl cyclase (via G(i)).

Tocris Summary for GALR2 Gene

  • Galanin is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and the endocrine system. Three different galanin receptors (GAL1-3) have been identified. Disruption of galanin expression or galanin receptor signaling is seen in many multifactoral conditions.

Gene Wiki entry for GALR2 Gene

Additional gene information for GALR2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GALR2 Gene

Genomics for GALR2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GALR2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GALR2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH17J076070 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 650.7 0.0 -8 2.6 HDGF PKNOX1 MLX ARID4B SIN3A ZBTB7B IRF4 YY1 SLC30A9 POLR2B SRP68 ZACN GALR2 NUP85 SRSF2 UNK GGA3 NT5C ENSG00000266980 METTL23
GH17J076077 Promoter/Enhancer 0.9 EPDnew ENCODE 650.4 +5.0 5043 0.2 ZBTB33 EZH2 GALR2 GC17P076081 SRP68 ZACN
GH17J076074 Promoter 0.7 EPDnew 650.7 +2.7 2674 0.1 TEAD1 SUZ12 EZH2 GALR2 ZACN SRP68 GC17P076081
GH17J075926 Promoter/Enhancer 1.2 EPDnew ENCODE 11.2 -145.1 -145051 1.9 GATAD2A CTCF ARID4B ELF1 ATF2 ETV5 ZNF48 RAD21 POLR2A GABPB1 FBF1 SRP68 GALR2 ZACN ENSG00000267426 MRPL38
GH17J076049 Enhancer 0.5 ENCODE 12.2 -20.9 -20906 2.5 SMARCE1 ZNF217 CTBP1 PKNOX1 GATA3 FOSL2 FOS GC17P076053 PIR59290 SRP68 EVPL ZACN GALR2 CDK3 EXOC7 MRPL38 QRICH2
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GALR2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GALR2 gene promoter:
  • MyoD
  • CREB
  • deltaCREB
  • RREB-1
  • USF1

Genomic Locations for GALR2 Gene

Genomic Locations for GALR2 Gene
5,454 bases
Plus strand
2,748 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GALR2 Gene

Genes around GALR2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GALR2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GALR2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GALR2 Gene

Proteins for GALR2 Gene

  • Protein details for GALR2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Galanin receptor type 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A5JUU4
    • Q32MN8

    Protein attributes for GALR2 Gene

    387 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    41700 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for GALR2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GALR2 Gene

  • Glycosylation at isoforms=11 and isoforms=2
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GALR2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GALR2 Gene

Domains & Families for GALR2 Gene

Gene Families for GALR2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • G-protein coupled receptors
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GALR2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GALR2: view

Function for GALR2 Gene

Molecular function for GALR2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor for the hormone galanin and GALP. Receptor for the hormone spexin-1 (PubMed:24517231). The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that activate the phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathway (via G(q)) and that inhibit adenylyl cyclase (via G(i)).
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
galanin receptor 2,G protein coupled receptor superfamily,binding GALN with high affinity,expressed in several region of brain as will as peripheral tissues,coupling to phospholipase C and elevation of intracellular calcium levels

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GALR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity IEA --
GO:0004966 galanin receptor activity IDA,TAS 9832121
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 23597562
GO:0008528 G-protein coupled peptide receptor activity IBA --
GO:0017046 peptide hormone binding IPI 9832121
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALR2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GALR2: view

Animal Models for GALR2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GALR2:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for GALR2

CRISPR Products

miRNA for GALR2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GALR2

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for GALR2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GALR2 Gene

Localization for GALR2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALR2 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GALR2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GALR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005622 intracellular IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane IBA --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane TAS 9480833
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALR2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GALR2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GALR2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GALR2: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for GALR2 Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GALR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006936 muscle contraction TAS 9480833
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007166 cell surface receptor signaling pathway TAS 9480833
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0007188 adenylate cyclase-modulating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS 9685625
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALR2: view

Drugs & Compounds for GALR2 Gene

(65) Drugs for GALR2 Gene - From: DGIdb, IUPHAR, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
M40 Pharma Antagonist 0
M617 Pharma Agonist 0
M871 Pharma Antagonist 0
Galanin (1-15) (porcine, rat) Pharma Galanin receptor agonist peptide 0
Galanin (1-29) (rat, mouse) Pharma Non-selective galanin receptor agonist 0

(4) Additional Compounds for GALR2 Gene - From: IUPHAR and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
galanin (10-29) (rat/mouse)
galanin(2?ao29) (rat/mouse)
Full agonist, Agonist

(5) Tocris Compounds for GALR2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Galanin (1-15) (porcine, rat) Galanin receptor agonist peptide 112747-70-3
Galanin (1-29) (rat, mouse) Non-selective galanin receptor agonist 114547-31-8
Galanin (1-30) (human) Endogenous galanin receptor agonist 119418-04-1
Galanin (2-29) (rat) Selective GAL2 peptide agonist 141696-11-9
Galnon Non-selective galanin receptor agonist 475115-35-6
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GALR2: view

Transcripts for GALR2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GALR2 Gene

(2) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(8) Additional mRNA sequences :
(7) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GALR2 Gene

Galanin receptor 2:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for GALR2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GALR2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GALR2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GALR2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GALR2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GALR2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Small Intestine - Terminal Ileum (x20.1), Colon - Sigmoid (x13.6), and Colon - Transverse (x6.4).

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GALR2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GALR2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GALR2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed abundantly within the central nervous system in both hypothalamus and hippocampus. In peripheral tissues, the strongest expression was observed in heart, kidney, liver, and small intestine.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GALR2 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.5)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GALR2: view

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GALR2 Gene

Orthologs for GALR2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GALR2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GALR2 34 33
  • 99.31 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GALR2 34 33
  • 89.03 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GALR2 34 33
  • 89.01 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Galr2 33
  • 86.65 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GALR2 34
  • 86 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Galr2 16 34 33
  • 85.21 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GALR2 34 33
  • 72.75 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GALR2 34
  • 62 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia galr2 33
  • 67.59 (n)
Str.12152 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii si:ch211-250n8.2 33
  • 67.79 (n)
GALR2 34
  • 60 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta GPRALS2 33
  • 54.67 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta AlstR 34 35 33
  • 47.64 (n)
AR-2 34
  • 27 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea npr-9 34 33
  • 43.84 (n)
ZK455.3 35
  • 33 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 33 (a)
Species where no ortholog for GALR2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GALR2 Gene

Gene Tree for GALR2 (if available)
Gene Tree for GALR2 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GALR2: view image

Paralogs for GALR2 Gene

Paralogs for GALR2 Gene

(15) SIMAP similar genes for GALR2 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GALR2: view

Variants for GALR2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GALR2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000061016 -- 76,075,776(+) T/C intron_variant
rs1000206025 -- 76,069,564(+) G/A upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000512849 -- 76,074,359(+) A/T genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000929308 -- 76,072,066(+) C/T 5_prime_UTR_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001156691 -- 76,077,516(+) C/A/G/T 3_prime_UTR_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GALR2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv2142 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv509674 CNV insertion 20534489
nsv833546 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for GALR2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 79% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.12; 61.26% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GALR2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALR2 Gene

Disorders for GALR2 Gene

Additional Disease Information for GALR2

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

No disorders were found for GALR2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GALR2 Gene

Publications for GALR2 Gene

  1. Molecular characterization, pharmacological properties and chromosomal localization of the human GALR2 galanin receptor. (PMID: 9685625) Fathi Z … Zimanyi IA (Brain research. Molecular brain research 1998) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Molecular characterization and expression of cloned human galanin receptors GALR2 and GALR3. (PMID: 9832121) Kolakowski LF … O'Dowd BF (Journal of neurochemistry 1998) 2 3 4 22 58
  3. Alcoholism is associated with GALR3 but not two other galanin receptor genes. (PMID: 17083333) Belfer I … Enoch MA (Genes, brain, and behavior 2007) 3 22 44 58
  4. Cloning and expression of the human galanin receptor GalR2. (PMID: 9480833) Bloomquist BT … Cornfield LJ (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1998) 3 4 22 58
  5. Cloning and characterization of the human galanin GALR2 receptor. (PMID: 9880084) Borowsky B … Gerald C (Peptides 1998) 3 4 22 58

Products for GALR2 Gene

Sources for GALR2 Gene

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