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Aliases for GALR1 Gene

Aliases for GALR1 Gene

  • Galanin Receptor 1 2 3 5
  • GALNR1 3 4
  • GAL1-R 3 4
  • GALR-1 3 4
  • GALNR 3 4
  • Galanin Receptor Type 1 3

External Ids for GALR1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GALR1 Gene

  • GALNR1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GALR1 Gene

  • GC18M074531
  • GC18P075110
  • GC18P074724
  • GC18P073088
  • GC18P073090
  • GC18P074962
  • GC18P071642

Summaries for GALR1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GALR1 Gene

  • The neuropeptide galanin elicits a range of biological effects by interaction with specific G-protein-coupled receptors. Galanin receptors are seven-transmembrane proteins shown to activate a variety of intracellular second-messenger pathways. GALR1 inhibits adenylyl cyclase via a G protein of the Gi/Go family. GALR1 is widely expressed in the brain and spinal cord, as well as in peripheral sites such as the small intestine and heart. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GALR1 Gene

GALR1 (Galanin Receptor 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors and Signaling by GPCR. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and neuropeptide binding. An important paralog of this gene is GALR2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALR1 Gene

  • Receptor for the hormone galanin. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that inhibit adenylate cyclase activity.

Tocris Summary for GALR1 Gene

  • Galanin is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and the endocrine system. Three different galanin receptors (GAL1-3) have been identified. Disruption of galanin expression or galanin receptor signaling is seen in many multifactoral conditions.

Gene Wiki entry for GALR1 Gene

Additional gene information for GALR1 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GALR1 Gene

Genomics for GALR1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GALR1 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GALR1 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH18J077250 Promoter 0.7 EPDnew 661.5 +0.4 446 0.1 SUZ12 ZBTB26 EZH2 GALR1 ENSG00000264015
GH18J077251 Enhancer 0.3 FANTOM5 657.8 +1.7 1730 0.3 EZH2 GALR1 ENSG00000264015
GH18J077254 Enhancer 0.4 ENCODE 0.7 +4.8 4774 0.5 BACH1 NFE2 GALR1 ENSG00000264015
GH18J077321 Enhancer 0.9 ENCODE 0.2 +71.9 71928 0.1 HDAC1 ATF1 TAF9B MLX ARNT YY1 TCF12 GATA2 EGR1 ATF7 GALR1 ENSG00000264015
GH18J077270 Enhancer 0.3 ENCODE 0.3 +21.7 21742 1.7 NANOG GALR1 ENSG00000264015
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GALR1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GALR1 gene promoter:
  • POU2F1a
  • POU2F1
  • Msx-1
  • S8
  • FOXD3
  • PPAR-gamma1
  • PPAR-gamma2
  • AhR
  • Bach1

Genomic Locations for GALR1 Gene

Genomic Locations for GALR1 Gene
27,845 bases
Plus strand
20,091 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GALR1 Gene

Genes around GALR1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GALR1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GALR1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GALR1 Gene

Proteins for GALR1 Gene

  • Protein details for GALR1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Galanin receptor type 1
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q4VBL7

    Protein attributes for GALR1 Gene

    349 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    38953 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for GALR1 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GALR1 Gene

  • Palmitoylated on at least one of the three cysteine residues present in the C-terminal part.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for GALR1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GALR1 Gene

Domains & Families for GALR1 Gene

Gene Families for GALR1 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • G-protein coupled receptors
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GALR1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GALR1: view

Function for GALR1 Gene

Molecular function for GALR1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor for the hormone galanin. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that inhibit adenylate cyclase activity.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
galanin receptor 1,G protein coupled receptor superfamily,linked to voltage gated calcium channel,expressed in brain,also coexpressed with GALN in ciliary epithelium predominantly signaling through inhibition of adenylate cyclase

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GALR1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GALR1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity IEA --
GO:0004966 galanin receptor activity TAS,IDA 24517231
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 23597562
GO:0008528 G-protein coupled peptide receptor activity IBA --
GO:0017046 peptide hormone binding IDA 24517231
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALR1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GALR1: view

Animal Models for GALR1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GALR1:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for GALR1

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GALR1

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GALR1 Gene

Localization for GALR1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALR1 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GALR1 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
nucleus 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GALR1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005622 intracellular IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane IBA --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane TAS 7524088
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALR1: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GALR1 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GALR1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GALR1: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GALR1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0007189 adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0007194 negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity TAS,IEA --
GO:0007200 NOT phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALR1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GALR1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GALR1 Gene

(59) Drugs for GALR1 Gene - From: PharmGKB, DGIdb, IUPHAR, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Bupropion Approved Pharma 344
Nicotine Approved Pharma Antagonist, Activation, Activator 1188
Galnon Pharma Agonist Non-selective galanin receptor agonist 0
M40 Pharma Antagonist 0
M617 Pharma Agonist 0

(3) Additional Compounds for GALR1 Gene - From: IUPHAR and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
galanin(2?ao29) (rat/mouse)
Full agonist, Agonist

(5) Tocris Compounds for GALR1 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Galanin (1-15) (porcine, rat) Galanin receptor agonist peptide 112747-70-3
Galanin (1-29) (rat, mouse) Non-selective galanin receptor agonist 114547-31-8
Galanin (1-30) (human) Endogenous galanin receptor agonist 119418-04-1
Galanin (2-29) (rat) Selective GAL2 peptide agonist 141696-11-9
Galnon Non-selective galanin receptor agonist 475115-35-6
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GALR1: view

Transcripts for GALR1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GALR1 Gene

(2) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(5) Additional mRNA sequences :
(10) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(2) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GALR1 Gene

Galanin receptor 1:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GALR1

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GALR1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GALR1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GALR1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GALR1 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GALR1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pituitary (x11.1).

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GALR1 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GALR1 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GALR1 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.5)
  • Intestine(4.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GALR1: view

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GALR1 Gene

Orthologs for GALR1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GALR1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GALR1 34 33
  • 99.24 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GALR1 34 33
  • 91.79 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GALR1 34 33
  • 89.78 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Galr1 16 34 33
  • 87.64 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Galr1 33
  • 86.51 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GALR1 34
  • 84 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GALR1 34
  • 74 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GALR1 33
  • 85.39 (n)
  • 83 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GALR1 34
  • 78 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia galr1 33
  • 75.78 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii galr1 34 33
  • 70.28 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta AlstR 34 35
  • 31 (a)
AR-2 34 35
  • 31 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea CELE_Y54E2A.1 33
  • 43.13 (n)
ZK455.3 35
  • 30 (a)
npr-9 34
  • 23 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 35 (a)
Species where no ortholog for GALR1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GALR1 Gene

Gene Tree for GALR1 (if available)
Gene Tree for GALR1 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GALR1: view image

Paralogs for GALR1 Gene

Paralogs for GALR1 Gene

(33) SIMAP similar genes for GALR1 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GALR1: view

Variants for GALR1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GALR1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 18 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000033950 -- 77,249,962(+) C/T upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000297792 -- 77,252,473(+) A/T intron_variant
rs1000582822 -- 77,250,423(+) G/T 5_prime_UTR_variant
rs1000748429 -- 77,262,237(+) T/G intron_variant
rs1001091488 -- 77,268,570(+) C/G genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GALR1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv1005e212 CNV loss 25503493
dgv1006e212 CNV loss 25503493
dgv196n21 CNV gain 19592680
dgv3407n100 CNV gain 25217958
esv2169580 CNV deletion 18987734
esv2717388 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717435 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717436 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717437 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717438 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717439 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717441 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717442 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2751779 CNV gain 17911159
esv2758740 CNV loss 17122850
esv3397365 CNV duplication 20981092
esv3583165 CNV loss 25503493
esv3643201 CNV loss 21293372
esv7653 CNV loss 19470904
nsv1071868 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1121539 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv130653 CNV deletion 16902084
nsv2364 CNV insertion 18451855

Variation tolerance for GALR1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 39.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.28; 62.71% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GALR1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALR1 Gene

Disorders for GALR1 Gene

Additional Disease Information for GALR1

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

No disorders were found for GALR1 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GALR1 Gene

Publications for GALR1 Gene

  1. Alcoholism is associated with GALR3 but not two other galanin receptor genes. (PMID: 17083333) Belfer I … Enoch MA (Genes, brain, and behavior 2007) 3 22 44 58
  2. Human galanin (GAL) and galanin 1 receptor (GALR1) variations are not involved in fat intake and early onset obesity. (PMID: 15930442) Schäuble N … Hinney A (The Journal of nutrition 2005) 3 22 44 58
  3. Structural organization of the mouse and human GALR1 galanin receptor genes (Galnr and GALNR) and chromosomal localization of the mouse gene. (PMID: 9367674) Jacoby AS … Iismaa TP (Genomics 1997) 3 4 22 58
  4. Cloning, chromosomal location, and transcriptional regulation of the human galanin-1 receptor gene (GALN1R). (PMID: 9425310) Lorimer DD … Benya RV (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1997) 3 4 22 58
  5. Molecular cloning of a functional human galanin receptor. (PMID: 7524088) Habert-Ortoli E … Mayaux JF (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1994) 2 3 4 58

Products for GALR1 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for GALR1

Sources for GALR1 Gene

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