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Aliases for GALM Gene

Aliases for GALM Gene

  • Galactose Mutarotase 2 3 4 5
  • Aldose 1-Epimerase 2 3
  • Aldose Mutarotase 2 3
  • Galactomutarotase 2 3
  • Epididymis Secretory Sperm Binding Protein Li 63p 3
  • Galactose Enzyme Activator 3
  • EC 4
  • HEL-S-63p 3
  • BLOCK25 3
  • GLAT 3
  • IBD1 3

External Ids for GALM Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GALM Gene

  • GC02P038867
  • GC02P038787

Summaries for GALM Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GALM Gene

  • This gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the epimerization of hexose sugars such as glucose and galactose. The encoded protein is expressed in the cytoplasm and has a preference for galactose. The encoded protein may be required for normal galactose metabolism by maintaining the equilibrium of alpha and beta anomers of galactose.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

GeneCards Summary for GALM Gene

GALM (Galactose Mutarotase) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are trehalose degradation and Galactose metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include carbohydrate binding and aldose 1-epimerase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALM Gene

  • Mutarotase converts alpha-aldose to the beta-anomer. It is active on D-glucose, L-arabinose, D-xylose, D-galactose, maltose and lactose (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for GALM Gene

Additional gene information for GALM Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GALM Gene

Genomics for GALM Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GALM Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GALM Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH02J038664 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 666.8 +0.8 822 3.5 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 GALM SRSF7 HNRNPLL ATL2 ENSG00000232518
GH02J038663 Enhancer 1 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 650.7 -1.9 -1910 0.4 ZNF362 JUNB BATF ATF2 IRF4 ZNF335 ATF4 CREM RUNX3 SP7 GALM HNRNPLL
GH02J038689 Enhancer 1.4 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 21.7 +25.9 25947 5.4 PKNOX1 CLOCK FOXA2 MLX ARID4B NEUROD1 SIN3A ZNF48 NCOA2 TCF12 GALM SRSF7 ENSG00000232518 ENSG00000252473 HNRNPLL SOS1 ENSG00000235586 RPLP0P6
GH02J038709 Enhancer 0.9 ENCODE dbSUPER 20.2 +43.8 43778 1.2 HDGF PKNOX1 SMAD1 RB1 BACH1 EBF1 BMI1 RELA ATF7 ZSCAN29 GALM ENSG00000232518 ENSG00000235586 HNRNPLL SRSF7
GH02J038701 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 16.4 +36.5 36526 1 MEIS2 TEAD4 TAL1 TCF12 CBFA2T2 FOS TRIM24 HLF CBFA2T3 DPF2 GALM ENSG00000232518 HNRNPLL ENSG00000235586 SRSF7
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GALM on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GALM gene promoter:
  • Olf-1
  • GCNF-2
  • GCNF-1
  • GCNF
  • AML1a
  • p53
  • RSRFC4
  • LyF-1
  • ATF6
  • FOXO4

Genomic Locations for GALM Gene

Genomic Locations for GALM Gene
75,328 bases
Plus strand
75,328 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GALM Gene

Genes around GALM on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GALM Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GALM Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GALM Gene

Proteins for GALM Gene

  • Protein details for GALM Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Aldose 1-epimerase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q53RY1
    • Q8NIA2
    • V9HWA8

    Protein attributes for GALM Gene

    342 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    37766 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer.
    • Sequence=AAL62475.1; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GALM Gene

neXtProt entry for GALM Gene

Post-translational modifications for GALM Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for GALM Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GALM Gene

Domains & Families for GALM Gene

Gene Families for GALM Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GALM Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the aldose epimerase family.
  • Belongs to the aldose epimerase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GALM: view

Function for GALM Gene

Molecular function for GALM Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Mutarotase converts alpha-aldose to the beta-anomer. It is active on D-glucose, L-arabinose, D-xylose, D-galactose, maltose and lactose (By similarity).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Alpha-D-glucose = beta-D-glucose.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GALM Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GALM Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GALM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004034 aldose 1-epimerase activity IDA,IEA 12753898
GO:0016853 isomerase activity IEA --
GO:0030246 carbohydrate binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALM: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GALM: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for GALM

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GALM Gene

Localization for GALM Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALM Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GALM gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 2
cytosol 2
mitochondrion 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GALM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome HDA 19056867
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALM: view

Pathways & Interactions for GALM Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GALM: view

Pathways by source for GALM Gene

1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for GALM Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q96C23-GALM_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Carbohydrate metabolism; hexose metabolism.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GALM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006006 glucose metabolic process IDA 12753898
GO:0006012 galactose metabolic process IDA 12753898
GO:0019318 hexose metabolic process IEA --
GO:0033499 galactose catabolic process via UDP-galactose IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALM: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GALM Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GALM Gene

(6) Drugs for GALM Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Beta-D-Glucose Experimental Pharma Target 0
alpha-D-quinovopyranose Experimental Pharma Target 0
alpha-D-Xylopyranose Experimental Pharma Target 0
Alpha-L-Arabinose Experimental Pharma Target 0

(3) Additional Compounds for GALM Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • alpha-D-GLC
  • alpha-Dextrose
  • a-D-GLC
  • α-D-GLC
  • a-D-Glucose
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GALM: view

Transcripts for GALM Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GALM Gene

Unigene Clusters for GALM Gene

Galactose mutarotase (aldose 1-epimerase):
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for GALM

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GALM Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10
SP1: - -
SP2: -
SP3: - -

Relevant External Links for GALM Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GALM Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GALM Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GALM Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adrenal Gland (x10.1), Kidney - Cortex (x4.3), and Liver (x4.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for GALM Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GALM Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GALM Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GALM Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GALM Gene

  • Liver(4.3)
  • Nervous system(4.2)
  • Skin(4.1)
  • Kidney(2.7)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GALM: view

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GALM Gene

Orthologs for GALM Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for GALM Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GALM 34
  • 99 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GALM 34 33
  • 89.57 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GALM 34 33
  • 87.62 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Galm 33
  • 86.35 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Galm 16 34 33
  • 85.67 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GALM 34
  • 82 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GALM 34
  • 60 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GALM 34 33
  • 67.54 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GALM 34
  • 74 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia galm 33
  • 68.91 (n)
Str.19129 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii galm 34 33
  • 63.81 (n)
Dr.18948 33
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP004376 33
  • 54.22 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG10467 34
  • 43 (a)
CG32445 34
  • 39 (a)
CG4988 34
  • 37 (a)
CG32444 34
  • 36 (a)
CG10996 34
  • 32 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea Y19D10A.16 34
  • 32 (a)
C01B4.6 34
  • 32 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes -- 34
  • 32 (a)
-- 34
  • 32 (a)
-- 36
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT3G17940 33
  • 54.79 (n)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os10g0155500 33
  • 56.15 (n)
Os.20067 33
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 45 (a)
Species where no ortholog for GALM was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GALM Gene

Gene Tree for GALM (if available)
Gene Tree for GALM (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GALM: view image

Paralogs for GALM Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for GALM Gene using alignment to 5 proteins:

  • B8ZZ75_HUMAN
  • F8WB82_HUMAN
  • H7C1B5_HUMAN
  • H7C320_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GALM: view

No data available for Paralogs for GALM Gene

Variants for GALM Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GALM Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000035549 -- 38,723,665(+) G/A/T genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000047698 -- 38,670,181(+) G/A intron_variant
rs1000056321 -- 38,705,893(+) A/C genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000097824 -- 38,724,229(+) T/C genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000103332 -- 38,665,756(+) C/T upstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GALM Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv6790n54 CNV gain 21841781
dgv6791n54 CNV gain 21841781
esv2421335 CNV duplication 20811451
esv24300 CNV loss 19812545
esv2667436 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2667715 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2719950 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2763640 CNV gain 21179565
esv3575232 CNV gain 25503493
esv3590419 CNV loss 21293372
esv3590420 CNV loss 21293372
esv3590421 CNV gain 21293372
esv3891860 CNV loss 25118596
nsv1114076 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1116372 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv213847 CNV deletion 16902084
nsv441752 CNV gain 18776908
nsv512771 CNV insertion 21212237
nsv518220 CNV gain 19592680
nsv581485 CNV gain 21841781
nsv581487 CNV gain 21841781
nsv817751 CNV gain 17921354
nsv819664 CNV loss 19587683
nsv820974 CNV duplication 20802225
nsv828975 CNV loss 20364138
nsv828986 CNV loss 20364138
nsv828997 CNV loss 20364138
nsv961401 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv9646 CNV loss 18304495

Variation tolerance for GALM Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 48.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 7.73; 83.13% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GALM Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALM Gene

Disorders for GALM Gene

Additional Disease Information for GALM

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

No disorders were found for GALM Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GALM Gene

Publications for GALM Gene

  1. Identification and characterisation of human aldose 1-epimerase. (PMID: 12753898) Timson DJ … Reece RJ (FEBS letters 2003) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Molecular structure of human galactose mutarotase. (PMID: 15026423) Thoden JB … Holden HM (The Journal of biological chemistry 2004) 3 4 22 58
  3. A non-synonymous polymorphism in galactose mutarotase (GALM) is associated with serotonin transporter binding potential in the human thalamus: results of a genome-wide association study. (PMID: 21339755) Liu X … McMahon FJ (Molecular psychiatry 2011) 3 44 58
  4. Galactomutarotase and other galactose-related genes are rapidly induced by retinoic acid in human myeloid cells. (PMID: 18052213) Pai T … Ross AC (Biochemistry 2007) 3 22 58
  5. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T … Sugano S (Nature genetics 2004) 3 4 58

Products for GALM Gene

Sources for GALM Gene

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