This gene encodes a neuroendocrine peptide that is widely expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and also the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, adrenal gland and urogenital tract. The encoded protein is a precursor that is proteolytically processed to generate two mature peptides: galanin and galanin message-associated peptide (GMAP). Galanin has diverse physio... See more...

Aliases for GAL Gene

Aliases for GAL Gene

  • Galanin And GMAP Prepropeptide 2 3 5
  • GLNN 2 3 4
  • Galanin-Message-Associated Peptide 2 3
  • Galanin Peptides 3 4
  • GAL-GMAP 2 3
  • GALN 3 4
  • GMAP 2 3
  • Galanin/GMAP Prepropeptide 3
  • Galanin-Related Peptide 3
  • Galanin Prepropeptide 3
  • Galanin 2
  • ETL8 3
  • GAL1 4
  • GAL 5

External Ids for GAL Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GAL Gene

  • GALN

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GAL Gene

  • GC11P070974
  • GC11P070148
  • GC11P068701
  • GC11P068227
  • GC11P068206
  • GC11P068208
  • GC11P068451
  • GC11P064788

Summaries for GAL Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GAL Gene

  • This gene encodes a neuroendocrine peptide that is widely expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and also the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, adrenal gland and urogenital tract. The encoded protein is a precursor that is proteolytically processed to generate two mature peptides: galanin and galanin message-associated peptide (GMAP). Galanin has diverse physiological functions including nociception, feeding and energy homeostasis, osmotic regulation and water balance. GMAP has been demonstrated to possess antifungal activity and hypothesized to be part of the innate immune system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2015]

GeneCards Summary for GAL Gene

GAL (Galanin And GMAP Prepropeptide) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GAL include Epilepsy, Familial Temporal Lobe, 8 and Autosomal Dominant Epilepsy With Auditory Features. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Peptide ligand-binding receptors. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include hormone activity and type 2 galanin receptor binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for GAL Gene

  • Endocrine hormone of the central and peripheral nervous systems that binds and activates the G protein-coupled receptors GALR1, GALR2, and GALR3. This small neuropeptide may regulate diverse physiologic functions including contraction of smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract, growth hormone and insulin release and adrenal secretion.

Tocris Summary for GAL Gene

  • Galanin is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and the endocrine system. Three different galanin receptors (GAL1-3) have been identified. Disruption of galanin expression or galanin receptor signaling is seen in many multifactoral conditions.

Gene Wiki entry for GAL Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for GAL Gene

Genomics for GAL Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for GAL Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH11J068684 Promoter 1.3 EPDnew Ensembl 258.1 +1.0 1022 1.2 EZH2 MYC ZNF592 NFIC POLR2A NONO SMAD5 TBP MAX SIN3B GAL lnc-GAL-1 LTO1 KMT5B TESMIN LOC107984343
GH11J068681 Enhancer 0.5 Ensembl 250.7 -1.2 -1178 1.6 EGR1 BHLHE40 L3MBTL2 ZNF366 EGR2 ZNF512 FOS ZFHX2 GAL lnc-GAL-1 TESMIN LOC107984343 HSALNG0085245-002 PPP6R3
GH11J069006 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 9.6 +327.7 327703 9 MYC ZNF600 JUND ZIC2 YY1 MXD4 CEBPB DEK BHLHE40 CTCF MRGPRF HSALNG0085293 MRGPRF-AS1 IGHMBP2 ENSG00000261625 MRPL21 GAL LTO1 ENSG00000261276 MRGPRD
GH11J068658 Enhancer 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 13 -24.6 -24578 1.6 ZNF600 ZNF580 NFIC ZIC2 BHLHE40 FEZF1 ZNF341 ZNF610 ZNF843 RAD21 TESMIN GAL PPP6R3 HSALNG0085246 RF00017-875
GH11J068532 Enhancer 1 Ensembl ENCODE 14.3 -149.1 -149090 5 ZNF600 CEBPA YY1 THAP11 FOXA2 KDM6A RXRA SMAD4 SAP130 DMAP1 PPP6R3 GAL MN309388 RF01061-033
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GAL on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for GAL

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GAL gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • ATF-2
  • c-Jun
  • CREB
  • deltaCREB
  • GR
  • GR-alpha
  • p53

Genomic Locations for GAL Gene

Latest Assembly
chr11:68,683,779-68,691,175
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
7,397 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Previous Assembly
chr11:68,452,012-68,458,643
(GRCh37/hg19 by Entrez Gene)
Size:
6,632 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

chr11:68,451,247-68,458,643
(GRCh37/hg19 by Ensembl)
Size:
7,397 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for GAL Gene

Genes around GAL on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GAL Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GAL Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GAL Gene

Proteins for GAL Gene

  • Protein details for GAL Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P22466-GALA_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Galanin peptides
    Protein Accession:
    P22466
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q14413

    Protein attributes for GAL Gene

    Size:
    123 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    13302 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for GAL Gene

Post-translational modifications for GAL Gene

  • Glycosylation at Thr35
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GAL Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GAL Gene

Domains & Families for GAL Gene

Gene Families for GAL Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for GAL Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • Galanin
  • Galanin message associated peptide (GMAP)

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GAL Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Galanin peptides (GALA_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P22466

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GALA_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the galanin family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the galanin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GAL: view

Function for GAL Gene

Molecular function for GAL Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Endocrine hormone of the central and peripheral nervous systems that binds and activates the G protein-coupled receptors GALR1, GALR2, and GALR3. This small neuropeptide may regulate diverse physiologic functions including contraction of smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract, growth hormone and insulin release and adrenal secretion.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
preprogalanin,including galanin and galanin message associated peptide,widely distributed in peripheral and central nervous system,eliciting numerous functions,including inhibition of neurotransmitter release,regulation of pituitary hormone secretion and possibly food intake; also coexpressed with GALNR1 in ciliary epithelium

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GAL Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GAL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004966 galanin receptor activity IMP 25691535
GO:0005179 hormone activity IEA --
GO:0005184 neuropeptide hormone activity IBA,NAS 1722333
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 25416956
GO:0031763 galanin receptor binding IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GAL: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GAL: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for GAL Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for GAL Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GAL:
  • Gal Gal<tm1Wyn>
  • Gal Gal<tm1b(KOMP)Wtsi>

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for GAL

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GAL Gene

Localization for GAL Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GAL Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GAL gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 3
golgi apparatus 3
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
cytosol 2
peroxisome 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Golgi apparatus (3)
  • Vesicles (3)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GAL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IBA,IDA 9402244
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005794 Golgi apparatus IEA --
GO:0030141 secretory granule IEA,IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GAL: view

Pathways & Interactions for GAL Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GAL: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for GAL Gene

Activates:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GAL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006954 inflammatory response IEA --
GO:0007186 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0007218 neuropeptide signaling pathway IBA 21873635
GO:0007631 feeding behavior IEA --
GO:0008285 negative regulation of cell proliferation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GAL: view

Drugs & Compounds for GAL Gene

(76) Drugs for GAL Gene - From: PharmGKB, ApexBio, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Mirtazapine Approved Pharma 115
Galanin (1-15) (porcine, rat) Pharma Galanin receptor agonist peptide 0
Galanin (1-29) (rat, mouse) Pharma Non-selective galanin receptor agonist 0
Galanin (2-29) (rat) Pharma Selective GAL2 peptide agonist 0
antidepressants Pharma 0

(44) Additional Compounds for GAL Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs

(5) Tocris Compounds for GAL Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Galanin (1-15) (porcine, rat) Galanin receptor agonist peptide 112747-70-3
Galanin (1-29) (rat, mouse) Non-selective galanin receptor agonist 114547-31-8
Galanin (1-30) (human) Endogenous galanin receptor agonist 119418-04-1
Galanin (2-29) (rat) Selective GAL2 peptide agonist 141696-11-9
Galnon Non-selective galanin receptor agonist 475115-35-6

(4) ApexBio Compounds for GAL Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Galanin (1-15) (porcine, rat) 112747-70-3
Galanin (1-29) (rat, mouse) 114547-31-8
Galanin (2-29) (rat) 141696-11-9
Galanin (porcine) 88813-36-9
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GAL: view

Drug products for research

Transcripts for GAL Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GAL Gene

1 REFSEQ mRNAs :
4 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
2 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for GAL

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GAL Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GAL Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GAL

Expression for GAL Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for GAL Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GAL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pituitary (x40.5) and Brain - Hypothalamus (x4.7).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GAL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Rectum (34.4), Prostate (16.5), and Colon (14.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for GAL Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for GAL Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for GAL

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GAL Gene:

Hs.278959

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GAL Gene

  • Nervous system(4.7)
  • Blood(4.4)
  • Liver(4.4)
  • Intestine(2.6)
  • Stomach(2.3)
  • Adrenal gland(2.3)
  • Muscle(2.2)
  • Pancreas(2.1)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GAL Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • mesoderm
Systems:
  • nervous
  • skeletal muscle
Regions:
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • head
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GAL: view

Primer products for research

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GAL Gene

Orthologs for GAL Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GAL Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GAL 29 30
  • 98.64 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GAL 29 30
  • 77.24 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gal 29
  • 76.15 (n)
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gal 29 16 30
  • 75.34 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GAL 29 30
  • 71.57 (n)
OneToOne
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GAL 30
  • 64 (a)
OneToOne
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GAL 30
  • 40 (a)
OneToOne
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GAL 30
  • 50 (a)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GAL 30
  • 48 (a)
OneToOne
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii galn 30
  • 42 (a)
OneToOne
Species where no ortholog for GAL was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Tropical Clawed Frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GAL Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GAL (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GAL (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GAL: view image
Alliance of Genome Resources:
Additional Orthologs for GAL

Paralogs for GAL Gene

No data available for Paralogs for GAL Gene

Variants for GAL Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for GAL Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 11 pos Variation AA Info Type
1018689 Uncertain Significance: Epilepsy, familial temporal lobe, 8 68,688,079(+) C/T
NM_015973.5(GAL):c.202C>T (p.Pro68Ser)
MISSENSE
1021546 Uncertain Significance: Epilepsy, familial temporal lobe, 8 68,690,952(+) G/A
NM_015973.5(GAL):c.337G>A (p.Ala113Thr)
MISSENSE
1027299 Uncertain Significance: Epilepsy, familial temporal lobe, 8 68,688,103(+) G/C
NM_015973.5(GAL):c.223+3G>C
INTRON
1037453 Uncertain Significance: Epilepsy, familial temporal lobe, 8 68,684,930(+) C/T
NM_015973.5(GAL):c.7C>T (p.Arg3Ter)
NONSENSE
1037569 Uncertain Significance: Epilepsy, familial temporal lobe, 8 68,684,936(+) A/G
NM_015973.5(GAL):c.13A>G (p.Ser5Gly)
MISSENSE

dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for variants without ClinVar clinical significance for GAL Gene

All consequence types are included: molecular consequences (e.g. missense, synonymous), and location-based (e.g. intron, upstream).

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GAL Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv832195 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for GAL Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 72.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.10; 38.35% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GAL Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
GAL
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
GAL
Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)
GAL

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assays for research

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GAL Gene

Disorders for GAL Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(31) MalaCards diseases for GAL Gene - From: OMI, CVR, GTR, SWI, COP, and GCD

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GAL in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

GALA_HUMAN
  • Epilepsy, familial temporal lobe, 8 (ETL8) [MIM:616461]: A focal form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe. Seizures are usually accompanied by sensory symptoms, most often auditory in nature. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:25691535}. Note=The disease is caused by variants affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for GAL

Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
Atlas
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GAL: view

No data available for Genatlas for GAL Gene

Publications for GAL Gene

  1. Galanin pathogenic mutations in temporal lobe epilepsy. (PMID: 25691535) Guipponi M … Antonarakis SE (Human molecular genetics 2015) 3 4 72
  2. Polymorphisms in the galanin gene are associated with symptom-severity in female patients suffering from panic disorder. (PMID: 17573119) Unschuld PG … Keck ME (Journal of affective disorders 2008) 3 22 40
  3. Alcoholism is associated with GALR3 but not two other galanin receptor genes. (PMID: 17083333) Belfer I … Enoch MA (Genes, brain, and behavior 2007) 3 22 40
  4. Association of galanin haplotypes with alcoholism and anxiety in two ethnically distinct populations. (PMID: 16314872) Belfer I … Enoch MA (Molecular psychiatry 2006) 3 22 40
  5. Human galanin (GAL) and galanin 1 receptor (GALR1) variations are not involved in fat intake and early onset obesity. (PMID: 15930442) Schäuble N … Hinney A (The Journal of nutrition 2005) 3 22 40

Products for GAL Gene

Sources for GAL Gene