This gene is a member of a group of genes whose transcript levels are increased following stressful growth arrest conditions and treatment with DNA-damaging agents. The protein encoded by this gene responds to environmental stresses by mediating activation of the p38/JNK pathway via MTK1/MEKK4 kinase. The DNA damage-induced transcription of this gene is mediated by both p53-dep... See more...

Aliases for GADD45A Gene

Aliases for GADD45A Gene

  • Growth Arrest And DNA Damage Inducible Alpha 2 3 5
  • GADD45 2 3 4
  • Growth Arrest And DNA Damage-Inducible Protein GADD45 Alpha 3 4
  • DNA Damage-Inducible Transcript 1 Protein 3 4
  • DDIT-1 3 4
  • DDIT1 3 4
  • Growth Arrest And DNA-Damage-Inducible 45 Alpha 3
  • Growth Arrest And DNA-Damage-Inducible, Alpha 2
  • DNA Damage-Inducible Transcript-1 3
  • GADD45A 5

External Ids for GADD45A Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GADD45A Gene

  • DDIT1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GADD45A Gene

  • GC01P068111
  • GC01P067082
  • GC01P067508
  • GC01P067520
  • GC01P067862
  • GC01P067923
  • GC01P066261

Summaries for GADD45A Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GADD45A Gene

  • This gene is a member of a group of genes whose transcript levels are increased following stressful growth arrest conditions and treatment with DNA-damaging agents. The protein encoded by this gene responds to environmental stresses by mediating activation of the p38/JNK pathway via MTK1/MEKK4 kinase. The DNA damage-induced transcription of this gene is mediated by both p53-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CIViC Summary for GADD45A Gene

GeneCards Summary for GADD45A Gene

GADD45A (Growth Arrest And DNA Damage Inducible Alpha) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GADD45A include Ataxia-Telangiectasia and Colorectal Cancer. Among its related pathways are ATM Pathway and Transcriptional misregulation in cancer. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include core promoter binding. An important paralog of this gene is GADD45B.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for GADD45A Gene

  • In T-cells, functions as a regulator of p38 MAPKs by inhibiting p88 phosphorylation and activity (By similarity). Might affect PCNA interaction with some CDK (cell division protein kinase) complexes; stimulates DNA excision repair in vitro and inhibits entry of cells into S phase.

Gene Wiki entry for GADD45A Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for GADD45A Gene

Genomics for GADD45A Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for GADD45A Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GADD45A on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for GADD45A

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GADD45A gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • ATF-2
  • c-Jun
  • C/EBPbeta
  • PPAR-gamma1
  • PPAR-gamma2

Genomic Locations for GADD45A Gene

Genomic Locations for GADD45A Gene
chr1:67,685,201-67,688,334
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
3,134 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr1:68,150,744-68,154,021
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
3,278 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for GADD45A Gene

Genes around GADD45A on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GADD45A Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GADD45A Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GADD45A Gene

Proteins for GADD45A Gene

  • Protein details for GADD45A Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P24522-GA45A_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD45 alpha
    Protein Accession:
    P24522
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5TCA7
    • Q5TCA8

    Protein attributes for GADD45A Gene

    Size:
    165 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    18336 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with MAPK14 (By similarity). Predominantly monomeric but also forms dimers and other oligomers as concentration increases. Interacts with GADD45GIP1. Interacts weakly with PCNA. Interacts with AURKA, likely to compete with dimerization.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GADD45A Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GADD45A Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for GADD45A Gene

Post-translational modifications for GADD45A Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys29
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GADD45A Gene

Antibody Products

  • Abcam antibodies for GADD45A

Protein Products

  • Abcam proteins for GADD45A

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GADD45A Gene

Domains & Families for GADD45A Gene

Gene Families for GADD45A Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for GADD45A Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • Ribosomal protein L7Ae/L30e/S12e/Gadd45
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GADD45A Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible 45 alpha (A5JUZ3_HUMAN)
  • DNA damage-inducible transcript 1 protein (GA45A_HUMAN)
  • cDNA, FLJ95917, Homo sapiens growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible, alpha(GADD45A), mRNA (Q5TCA8_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P24522

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GA45A_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the GADD45 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the GADD45 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GADD45A: view

Function for GADD45A Gene

Molecular function for GADD45A Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
In T-cells, functions as a regulator of p38 MAPKs by inhibiting p88 phosphorylation and activity (By similarity). Might affect PCNA interaction with some CDK (cell division protein kinase) complexes; stimulates DNA excision repair in vitro and inhibits entry of cells into S phase.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
By UV irradiation, X-rays, growth arrest and alkylating agents. The induction is mediated by some kinase(s) other than PKC.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible transcript alpha,involved in UV- and methyl methanisulfonate (MMS)-induced G2 arrest,p53-responsive stress protein activating MEKK4,interacting with the four core histones,mediating G2/M checkpoint,down-regulated by cyclin B1 and Cdc25C expression,inactivating (M phase promoting factor) MPF through interaction with CDC2 but not cyclin B1,putative downregulated c-Myc target gene,modifying DNA accessibility on damaged chromatin

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GADD45A Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GADD45A Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 12052864
GO:0019900 kinase binding IPI 20460379
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IDA 20460379
GO:0046982 protein heterodimerization activity IPI 20460379
GO:0047485 protein N-terminus binding IDA 20460379
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GADD45A: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GADD45A: view

Animal Models for GADD45A Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GADD45A:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for GADD45A

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GADD45A Gene

Localization for GADD45A Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GADD45A Gene

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GADD45A gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
extracellular 3
cytosol 3
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
lysosome 2
peroxisome 1
endosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Nuclear speckles (3)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GADD45A Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA,IDA 9827804
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm TAS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IBA,IDA 9827804
GO:0016607 nuclear speck IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GADD45A: view

Pathways & Interactions for GADD45A Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GADD45A: view

Pathways by source for GADD45A Gene

1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for GADD45A Gene
  • DNA damage_ATM/ATR regulation of G1/S checkpoint
5 Qiagen pathways for GADD45A Gene
  • ATM Pathway
  • BRCA1 Pathway
  • DNA Repair Mechanisms
  • GADD45 Pathway
  • p53 Signaling
1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for GADD45A Gene
2 GeneTex pathways for GADD45A Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for GADD45A Gene

Inactivates:
Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GADD45A Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000079 regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity TAS 10747892
GO:0000122 negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IMP 23329839
GO:0000185 activation of MAPKKK activity IDA 9827804
GO:0006281 DNA repair TAS 7973727
GO:0006469 negative regulation of protein kinase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GADD45A: view

Drugs & Compounds for GADD45A Gene

(27) Drugs for GADD45A Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials

(14) Additional Compounds for GADD45A Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GADD45A: view

Transcripts for GADD45A Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GADD45A Gene

3 REFSEQ mRNAs :
7 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
7 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for GADD45A

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GADD45A Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b
SP1: -
SP2: - -
SP3:

Relevant External Links for GADD45A Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GADD45A

Expression for GADD45A Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for GADD45A Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GADD45A Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Muscle - Skeletal (x4.3).

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for GADD45A

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GADD45A Gene:

Hs.80409

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GADD45A Gene

  • Muscle(4.7)
  • Lung(4.6)
  • Kidney(3.5)
  • Nervous system(3.4)
  • Liver(3.4)
  • Heart(3.2)
  • Intestine(3.1)
  • Spleen(2.9)
  • Bone marrow(2.9)
  • Skin(2.8)
  • Blood(2.7)
  • Thyroid gland(2.6)
  • Stomach(2.4)
  • Eye(2.4)
  • Lymph node(2.2)
  • Pancreas(2.2)
  • Adrenal gland(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GADD45A: view

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GADD45A Gene

Orthologs for GADD45A Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GADD45A Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GADD45A 30 31
  • 100 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GADD45A 30 31
  • 94.14 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GADD45A 30 31
  • 92.48 (n)
OneToOne
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gadd45a 30 17 31
  • 90.51 (n)
OneToOne
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GADD45A 31
  • 90 (a)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gadd45a 30
  • 87.88 (n)
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GADD45A 31
  • 45 (a)
OneToOne
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GADD45 31
  • 80 (a)
OneToOne
GADD45A 30
  • 77.71 (n)
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GADD45A 31
  • 84 (a)
OneToOne
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gadd45a 30
  • 70.06 (n)
Str.1971 30
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gadd45aa 31
  • 69 (a)
OneToMany
gadd45ab 30 31
  • 68.8 (n)
OneToMany
Dr.14374 30
Rainbow Trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.4328 30
Species where no ortholog for GADD45A was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GADD45A Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GADD45A (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GADD45A (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GADD45A: view image

Paralogs for GADD45A Gene

Paralogs for GADD45A Gene

(3) SIMAP similar genes for GADD45A Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

  • GA45A_HUMAN
  • A5JUZ3_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GADD45A: view

Variants for GADD45A Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for GADD45A Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
784441 Benign: not provided 67,686,488(+) G/A SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT,INTRON_VARIANT

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for GADD45A Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GADD45A Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1276 CNV deletion 18451855

Variation tolerance for GADD45A Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 38.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.07; 1.62% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GADD45A Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
GADD45A
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
GADD45A

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GADD45A Gene

Disorders for GADD45A Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(13) MalaCards diseases for GADD45A Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
ataxia-telangiectasia
  • at
colorectal cancer
  • crc
xeroderma pigmentosum, variant type
  • xpv
pancreatic cancer
  • pancreatic carcinoma
lung cancer
  • adenocarcinoma of lung
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Additional Disease Information for GADD45A

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GADD45A: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GADD45A Gene

Publications for GADD45A Gene

  1. Induction by ionizing radiation of the gadd45 gene in cultured human cells: lack of mediation by protein kinase C. (PMID: 1990262) Papathanasiou MA … Fornace AJ (Molecular and cellular biology 1991) 2 3 4 23
  2. Interaction of the p53-regulated protein Gadd45 with proliferating cell nuclear antigen. (PMID: 7973727) Smith ML … Fornace AJ (Science (New York, N.Y.) 1994) 3 4 23
  3. Analysis of the mammalian gadd45 gene and its response to DNA damage. (PMID: 8226988) Hollander MC … Fornace AJ (The Journal of biological chemistry 1993) 2 3 4
  4. GADD45A binds R-loops and recruits TET1 to CpG island promoters. (PMID: 30617255) Arab K … Niehrs C (Nature genetics 2019) 2 3
  5. Solution structure of human growth arrest and DNA damage 45alpha (Gadd45alpha) and its interactions with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Aurora A kinase. (PMID: 20460379) Sánchez R … Blanco FJ (The Journal of biological chemistry 2010) 3 4

Products for GADD45A Gene

Sources for GADD45A Gene