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Aliases for FSTL1 Gene

Aliases for FSTL1 Gene

  • Follistatin Like 1 2 3 5
  • Follistatin-Like Protein 1 3 4
  • FRP 3 4
  • Follistatin-Related Protein 1 3
  • Follistatin-Like 1 2
  • MIR198 3
  • OCC-1 3
  • Tsc36 3
  • FSL1 3
  • OCC1 3

External Ids for FSTL1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for FSTL1 Gene

  • GC03M116747
  • GC03M119753
  • GC03M121394
  • GC03M121434
  • GC03M121595
  • GC03M120111

Summaries for FSTL1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for FSTL1 Gene

  • This gene encodes a protein with similarity to follistatin, an activin-binding protein. It contains an FS module, a follistatin-like sequence containing 10 conserved cysteine residues. This gene product is thought to be an autoantigen associated with rheumatoid arthritis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for FSTL1 Gene

FSTL1 (Follistatin Like 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with FSTL1 include Rheumatoid Arthritis and Arthritis. Among its related pathways are Signaling by BMP and Signaling by GPCR. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and heparin binding. An important paralog of this gene is FSTL4.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FSTL1 Gene

  • May modulate the action of some growth factors on cell proliferation and differentiation. Binds heparin (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for FSTL1 Gene

Additional gene information for FSTL1 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for FSTL1 Gene

Genomics for FSTL1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for FSTL1 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for FSTL1 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH03J120446 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 655.2 +1.6 1621 5.3 KLF17 FEZF1 KLF14 ETS1 ZNF335 GLIS2 POLR3A ZNF366 KLF7 EGR2 FSTL1 RPL34P9 MIR198
GH03J120595 Promoter/Enhancer 1.9 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 650.1 -145.4 -145385 2.6 HDGF PKNOX1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF48 YY1 POLR2B ZNF143 SP5 NDUFB4 FSTL1 GTF2E1 RABL3 PIR48626
GH03J119468 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 10.7 +982.1 982128 2.2 HDGF FOXA2 SMAD1 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 ZNF766 POGLUT1 TMEM39A RPS26P21 B4GALT4 CD80 FSTL1 TIMMDC1 ENSG00000272662
GH03J120416 Enhancer 1.4 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 13.3 +31.9 31877 6.7 PKNOX1 ATF1 FOXA2 ARID4B SIN3A ZNF48 YY1 ZNF143 FOS ATF7 GPR156 FSTL1 RPL10P7 LOC100130701 LRRC58 MIR198
GH03J120422 Enhancer 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 13 +25.6 25597 5.5 JUND POLR2A RCOR1 HNF4A FSTL1 GPR156 LOC100130701 LRRC58 GSK3B ADPRH MIR198
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around FSTL1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the FSTL1 gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • c-Jun
  • ATF-2
  • c-Fos
  • ARP-1
  • POU2F1
  • POU2F1a
  • POU2F1b

Genomic Locations for FSTL1 Gene

Genomic Locations for FSTL1 Gene
58,961 bases
Minus strand
58,961 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for FSTL1 Gene

Genes around FSTL1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
FSTL1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for FSTL1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for FSTL1 Gene

Proteins for FSTL1 Gene

  • Protein details for FSTL1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Follistatin-related protein 1
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K523
    • B4DTT5
    • D3DN90
    • Q549Z0

    Protein attributes for FSTL1 Gene

    308 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    34986 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with SCN10A.

    Alternative splice isoforms for FSTL1 Gene


neXtProt entry for FSTL1 Gene

Post-translational modifications for FSTL1 Gene

  • Glycosylation at isoforms=2180, Asn175, and Asn144
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for FSTL1 Gene

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for FSTL1 (Follistatin-like 1/FSTL1)
  • Abcam antibodies for FSTL1
  • Boster Bio Antibodies for FSTL1
  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology (SCBT) Antibodies for FSTL1

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for FSTL1 Gene

Domains & Families for FSTL1 Gene

Gene Families for FSTL1 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

genes like me logo Genes that share domains with FSTL1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FSTL1 Gene

Function for FSTL1 Gene

Molecular function for FSTL1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
May modulate the action of some growth factors on cell proliferation and differentiation. Binds heparin (By similarity).

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for FSTL1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for FSTL1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005509 calcium ion binding IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI,IEA 19060904
GO:0008201 heparin binding IEA,TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FSTL1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with FSTL1: view

Animal Models for FSTL1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for FSTL1:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for FSTL1

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for FSTL1 Gene

Localization for FSTL1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FSTL1 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for FSTL1 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
endoplasmic reticulum 4
cytosol 3
golgi apparatus 2
plasma membrane 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (2)
  • Vesicles (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for FSTL1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space HDA,TAS 16502470
GO:0005788 endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome HDA 23533145
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FSTL1: view

Pathways & Interactions for FSTL1 Gene

SuperPathways for FSTL1 Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 Signaling by GPCR
2 Signaling by BMP
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with FSTL1: view

Pathways by source for FSTL1 Gene

2 GeneTex pathways for FSTL1 Gene
2 Reactome pathways for FSTL1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for FSTL1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0030509 BMP signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0042594 response to starvation IEA --
GO:0043687 post-translational protein modification TAS --
GO:0044267 cellular protein metabolic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FSTL1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for FSTL1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for FSTL1 Gene

(7) Drugs for FSTL1 Gene - From: ClinicalTrials

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Anticholesteremic Agents Pharma 2147
Antimetabolites Pharma 12587
Atorvastatin Calcium Pharma HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor 793
Calcium, Dietary Pharma 6089
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors Pharma 2090
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with FSTL1: view

Transcripts for FSTL1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for FSTL1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for FSTL1 Gene

Follistatin-like 1:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for FSTL1 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14 ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16a · 16b · 16c
SP1: - - - - - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - - - - - -
SP4: - - - -
SP6: - - -
SP8: - - - -

Relevant External Links for FSTL1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for FSTL1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for FSTL1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for FSTL1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Amniocyte (46.7) and Liver (8.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for FSTL1 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of FSTL1 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for FSTL1 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for FSTL1 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Overexpressed in synovial tissues from rheumatoid arthritis.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for FSTL1 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Kidney(4.7)
  • Bone marrow(4.1)
  • Heart(4.1)
  • Skin(3.9)
  • Lung(3.6)
  • Muscle(3.6)
  • Bone(3.1)
  • Eye(2.9)
  • Spleen(2.6)
  • Thyroid gland(2.5)
  • Gall bladder(2.2)
  • Pancreas(2.2)
  • Lymph node(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with FSTL1: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for FSTL1 Gene

Orthologs for FSTL1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for FSTL1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ptr-mir-198 34
  • 100 (a)
FSTL1 33
  • 99.46 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia FSTL1 34 33
  • 93.46 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia FSTL1 34 33
  • 92.96 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Fstl1 16 34 33
  • 88.89 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Fstl1 33
  • 88.45 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia FSTL1 34
  • 86 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia FSTL1 34
  • 71 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves FSTL1 34 33
  • 82.87 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia FSTL1 34
  • 80 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia fstl1 33
  • 74.23 (n)
Str.10997 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia xFRP 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii fstl1b 34 33
  • 72.09 (n)
fstl1a 34
  • 65 (a)
FSTL1 (3 of 3) 34
  • 5 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 7 (a)
Species where no ortholog for FSTL1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for FSTL1 Gene

Gene Tree for FSTL1 (if available)
Gene Tree for FSTL1 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for FSTL1: view image

Paralogs for FSTL1 Gene

Paralogs for FSTL1 Gene

(6) SIMAP similar genes for FSTL1 Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

  • C9J5G4_HUMAN
  • H7C4W4_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with FSTL1: view

Variants for FSTL1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for FSTL1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000003817 -- 120,419,227(-) G/A intron_variant
rs1000141661 -- 120,395,526(-) G/T 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs1000150206 -- 120,424,898(-) G/A intron_variant
rs1000200869 -- 120,439,604(-) G/A intron_variant
rs1000269990 -- 120,404,522(-) G/A intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for FSTL1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv8523n54 CNV loss 21841781
esv25295 CNV loss 19812545
esv2669703 CNV deletion 23128226
esv3597573 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1131720 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv3969 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv436396 CNV deletion 17901297
nsv591394 CNV loss 21841781
nsv829698 CNV gain 17160897

Variation tolerance for FSTL1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 56.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.22; 24.47% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for FSTL1 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FSTL1 Gene

Disorders for FSTL1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for FSTL1 Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
rheumatoid arthritis
  • ra
  • inflammatory disorder of joint
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search FSTL1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for FSTL1

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with FSTL1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for FSTL1 Gene

Publications for FSTL1 Gene

  1. Follistatin-related protein gene (FRP) is expressed in the synovial tissues of rheumatoid arthritis, but its polymorphisms are not associated with genetic susceptibility. (PMID: 15638044) Ehara Y … Tokunaga K (Clinical and experimental rheumatology 2004) 3 4 22 44 58
  2. Cloning of follistatin-related protein as a novel autoantigen in systemic rheumatic diseases. (PMID: 9786430) Tanaka M … Nakao K (International immunology 1998) 2 3 4 22 58
  3. Characterization of a rat C6 glioma-secreted follistatin-related protein (FRP). Cloning and sequence of the human homologue. (PMID: 7957230) Zwijsen A … Slegers H (European journal of biochemistry 1994) 2 3 4 22 58
  4. Inherited genetic variant predisposes to aggressive but not indolent prostate cancer. (PMID: 20080650) Xu J … Isaacs WB (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2010) 3 44 58
  5. MicroRNAs and target site screening reveals a pre-microRNA-30e variant associated with schizophrenia. (PMID: 20347265) Xu Y … Liu P (Schizophrenia research 2010) 3 44 58

Products for FSTL1 Gene

  • Boster Bio Antibodies for FSTL1
  • Boster Bio ELISA Kits for FSTL1

Sources for FSTL1 Gene

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