Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for FST Gene

Aliases for FST Gene

  • Follistatin 2 3 3 5
  • Activin-Binding Protein 3 4
  • FS 3 4
  • Follistatin Isoform FST317 3

External Ids for FST Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for FST Gene

  • GC05P052940
  • GC05P054206
  • GC05P052746
  • GC05P052792
  • GC05P052812
  • GC05P049748
  • GC05P052776

Summaries for FST Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for FST Gene

  • Follistatin is a single-chain gonadal protein that specifically inhibits follicle-stimulating hormone release. The single FST gene encodes two isoforms, FST317 and FST344 containing 317 and 344 amino acids respectively, resulting from alternative splicing of the precursor mRNA. In a study in which 37 candidate genes were tested for linkage and association with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or hyperandrogenemia in 150 families, evidence was found for linkage between PCOS and follistatin. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for FST Gene

FST (Follistatin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with FST include Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Oocyte Maturation Defect 1. Among its related pathways are TGF-beta signaling pathway (KEGG) and TGF-beta Receptor Signaling (WikiPathways). Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include obsolete signal transducer activity and activin binding. An important paralog of this gene is FSTL3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FST Gene

  • Binds directly to activin and functions as an activin antagonist. Specific inhibitor of the biosynthesis and secretion of pituitary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).

Gene Wiki entry for FST Gene

Additional gene information for FST Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for FST Gene

Genomics for FST Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for FST Gene

Promoters and enhancers for FST Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH05J053477 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 650.7 +0.9 874 6.5 PKNOX1 FOXA2 SMAD1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 FST NDUFS4 GC05M053469
GH05J053417 Enhancer 1.5 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12.5 -58.2 -58162 10.3 PKNOX1 FOXA2 BATF BRCA1 ZBTB40 RAD21 RFX5 YY1 GATA2 PRPF4 FST LOC257396 RPS19P4
GH05J053429 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.1 -50.0 -50030 2.2 CTCF FOXA2 BACH1 ZNF384 ZNF644 RAD21 YY1 TEAD3 GATA3 ZNF316 FST RPS19P4
GH05J053560 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 5.3 +80.6 80560 1.8 HDGF PKNOX1 SMAD1 FOXA2 ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 NDUFS4 FST GC05M053671
GH05J054215 Enhancer 0.8 UCNEbase ENCODE 11.4 +735.1 735115 0.4 MEIS2 PKNOX1 ZBTB33 ARL15 FST GC05M054128 ENSG00000279638
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around FST on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the FST gene promoter:
  • MyoD
  • COUP

Genomic Locations for FST Gene

Genomic Locations for FST Gene
6,794 bases
Plus strand
6,726 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for FST Gene

Genes around FST on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
FST Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for FST Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for FST Gene

Proteins for FST Gene

  • Protein details for FST Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B5BU94
    • Q9BTH0

    Protein attributes for FST Gene

    344 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    38007 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer. Isoform 2/FS-288 interacts with GDF11 (PubMed:28257634).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for FST Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for FST Gene


neXtProt entry for FST Gene

Post-translational modifications for FST Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn288 and Asn124
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for FST Gene

Domains & Families for FST Gene

Gene Families for FST Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Candidate cardiovascular disease genes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for FST Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

genes like me logo Genes that share domains with FST: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FST Gene

Function for FST Gene

Molecular function for FST Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Binds directly to activin and functions as an activin antagonist. Specific inhibitor of the biosynthesis and secretion of pituitary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
follistatin,an acitivin-binding protein,expressed in numerous tissues,including the ovary,pituitary,adrenal cortex and pancreas,neutralizing the biological acitivity of activin in vivo and in vitro,plausible candidate gene for polycystic ovary syndrome PCOS

LifeMap Function Summary for FST Gene

During embryonic development, FST as signaling molecule is secreted from the following cells

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for FST Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for FST Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004871 obsolete signal transducer activity NAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI,IEA 16198295
GO:0043395 heparan sulfate proteoglycan binding IEA --
GO:0048185 activin binding IPI 12697670
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FST: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with FST: view

Animal Models for FST Gene

MGI Knock Outs for FST:
  • Fst Fst<tm1Zuk>

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for FST Gene

Localization for FST Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FST Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for FST gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 3
plasma membrane 2
cytosol 2
mitochondrion 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for FST Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FST: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for FST Gene

Pathways & Interactions for FST Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with FST: view

Pathways by source for FST Gene

1 KEGG pathway for FST Gene
1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for FST Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for FST Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000122 negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA 12702211
GO:0002244 hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation IDA 15451575
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0032926 negative regulation of activin receptor signaling pathway IDA 11948405
GO:0051798 positive regulation of hair follicle development IDA 12514121
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FST: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for FST Gene

Drugs & Compounds for FST Gene

(27) Drugs for FST Gene - From: DrugBank and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
D-Myo-Inositol-Hexasulphate Experimental Pharma Target 0

(19) Additional Compounds for FST Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with FST: view

Transcripts for FST Gene

Unigene Clusters for FST Gene

Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for FST Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6
SP1: -

Relevant External Links for FST Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for FST Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for FST Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for FST Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x7.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for FST Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Gallbladder (34.5) and Prostate (30.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for FST Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for FST Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of FST Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for FST Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for FST Gene:

Tissue specificity: Isoform 1 is the predominant isoform in serum but is undetectable in follicular fluid.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for FST Gene

  • Pancreas(4.4)
  • Nervous system(2.8)
  • Muscle(2.7)
  • Liver(2.6)
  • Heart(2.5)
  • Lung(2.3)
  • Kidney(2)
  • Thyroid gland(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with FST: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for FST Gene

Orthologs for FST Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for FST Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia FST 34 33
  • 99.42 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia FST 34
  • 93 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia FST 34 33
  • 92.86 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia FST 34 33
  • 92.34 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia FST 34
  • 92 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Fst 16 34 33
  • 91.16 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Fst 33
  • 90.99 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves FST 34 33
  • 83.87 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia FST 34
  • 85 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia fst 33
  • 77.18 (n)
Str.10666 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.1094 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii fsta 34 33
  • 73.29 (n)
fstb 34
  • 67 (a)
fst 33
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP006282 33
  • 48.28 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Fs 34
  • 16 (a)
Species where no ortholog for FST was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for FST Gene

Gene Tree for FST (if available)
Gene Tree for FST (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for FST: view image

Paralogs for FST Gene

Paralogs for FST Gene

(7) SIMAP similar genes for FST Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

  • H0YA75_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with FST: view

Variants for FST Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for FST Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 05 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000150126 -- 53,485,305(+) G/A intron_variant
rs1000552658 -- 53,487,245(+) G/A downstream_transcript_variant
rs1000875144 -- 53,486,832(+) T/C 3_prime_UTR_variant, downstream_transcript_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant
rs1001673381 -- 53,481,756(+) C/T 5_prime_UTR_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs1002057780 -- 53,482,531(+) G/A coding_sequence_variant, intron_variant, missense_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for FST Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv5666n100 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1119032 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv328038 CNV deletion 16902084

Variation tolerance for FST Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 41.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.27; 25.35% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for FST Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FST Gene

Disorders for FST Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(6) MalaCards diseases for FST Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search FST in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for FST

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with FST: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for FST Gene

Publications for FST Gene

  1. Differential distribution of follistatin isoforms: application of a new FS315-specific immunoassay. (PMID: 15472207) Schneyer AL … Sluss PM (The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2004) 3 4 22 58
  2. Primary structure of the human follistatin precursor and its genomic organization. (PMID: 3380788) Shimasaki S … Guillemin R (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1988) 2 3 4 58
  3. Maternal genes and facial clefts in offspring: a comprehensive search for genetic associations in two population-based cleft studies from Scandinavia. (PMID: 20634891) Jugessur A … Murray JC (PloS one 2010) 3 44 58
  4. A large-scale candidate gene association study of age at menarche and age at natural menopause. (PMID: 20734064) He C … Hunter DJ (Human genetics 2010) 3 44 58
  5. Increased follistatin levels after oral contraceptive treatment in obese and non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. (PMID: 20093255) Chen MJ … Chen SU (Human reproduction (Oxford, England) 2010) 3 22 58

Products for FST Gene

Sources for FST Gene

Loading form....