Follistatin is a single-chain gonadal protein that specifically inhibits follicle-stimulating hormone release. The single FST gene encodes two isoforms, FST317 and FST344 containing 317 and 344 amino acids respectively, resulting from alternative splicing of the precursor mRNA. In a study in which 37 candidate genes were tested for linkage and association with polycystic ova... See more...

Aliases for FST Gene

Aliases for FST Gene

  • Follistatin 2 3 4 5
  • FS 2 3 4
  • Activin-Binding Protein 3 4
  • FST 5

External Ids for FST Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for FST Gene

  • GC05P052940
  • GC05P054206
  • GC05P052746
  • GC05P052792
  • GC05P052812
  • GC05P049748
  • GC05P052776

Summaries for FST Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for FST Gene

  • Follistatin is a single-chain gonadal protein that specifically inhibits follicle-stimulating hormone release. The single FST gene encodes two isoforms, FST317 and FST344 containing 317 and 344 amino acids respectively, resulting from alternative splicing of the precursor mRNA. In a study in which 37 candidate genes were tested for linkage and association with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or hyperandrogenemia in 150 families, evidence was found for linkage between PCOS and follistatin. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for FST Gene

FST (Follistatin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with FST include Orofacial Clefting Syndrome and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Among its related pathways are Signaling by NODAL and Signaling by GPCR. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include obsolete signal transducer activity and activin binding. An important paralog of this gene is FSTL3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for FST Gene

  • Binds directly to activin and functions as an activin antagonist. Specific inhibitor of the biosynthesis and secretion of pituitary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).

Gene Wiki entry for FST Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for FST Gene

Genomics for FST Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for FST Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH05J053477 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 250.7 +0.9 877 6.5 EZH2 ZNF654 ZNF600 IKZF1 SSRP1 ZNF580 KLF9 CEBPA BRCA1 POLR2A FST NDUFS4 piR-54582-005
GH05J053417 Enhancer 1.4 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12.5 -58.1 -58127 10.4 IKZF1 ZNF654 JUND BRCA1 NFIC YY1 REST CEBPB CHD2 CTCF FST LOC257396 HSALNG0041786 RPS19P4 HSALNG0041784 MOCS2
GH05J053542 Enhancer 1 Ensembl ENCODE 16.4 +64.5 64463 5.6 MYC NCOR1 SIN3A TAL1 RUNX1 ZNF316 STAT5A SMARCA4 HDAC2 ZNF384 FST NDUFS4 piR-56133-180 HSALNG0041796
GH05J053429 Enhancer 1 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.1 -50.0 -50027 2.2 ZNF654 YY1 REST CEBPB HOMEZ CTCF FOXA2 MAFF RAD21 SMC3 HSALNG0041786 FST RPS19P4 HSALNG0041784 MOCS2
GH05J054215 Enhancer 1 UCNEbase Ensembl ENCODE 11.4 +734.2 734163 5 PRDM6 ZBTB33 MEIS2 PKNOX1 PRDM1 ARL15 FST piR-43105-537 piR-56037-006 NDUFS4
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around FST on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for FST

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the FST gene promoter:
  • COUP
  • COUP-TF
  • MyoD

Genomic Locations for FST Gene

Latest Assembly
chr5:53,480,338-53,487,134
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
6,797 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Previous Assembly
chr5:52,776,459-52,782,964
(GRCh37/hg19 by Entrez Gene)
Size:
6,506 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

chr5:52,776,239-52,782,964
(GRCh37/hg19 by Ensembl)
Size:
6,726 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for FST Gene

Genes around FST on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
FST Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for FST Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for FST Gene

Proteins for FST Gene

  • Protein details for FST Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P19883-FST_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Follistatin
    Protein Accession:
    P19883
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B5BU94
    • Q9BTH0

    Protein attributes for FST Gene

    Size:
    344 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    38007 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer. Isoform 2/FS-288 interacts with GDF11 (PubMed:28257634).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for FST Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for FST Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for FST Gene

Post-translational modifications for FST Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn124 and Asn288
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Glycosylation from GlyConnect

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for FST Gene

Domains & Families for FST Gene

Gene Families for FST Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Candidate cardiovascular disease genes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for FST Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • Follistatin-like, N-terminal

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for FST Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Activin-binding protein (FST_HUMAN)
  • FST protein (Q6FHE1_HUMAN)
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with FST: view

No data available for Graphical View of Domain Structure and UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FST Gene

Function for FST Gene

Molecular function for FST Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Binds directly to activin and functions as an activin antagonist. Specific inhibitor of the biosynthesis and secretion of pituitary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
follistatin,an acitivin-binding protein,expressed in numerous tissues,including the ovary,pituitary,adrenal cortex and pancreas,neutralizing the biological acitivity of activin in vivo and in vitro,plausible candidate gene for polycystic ovary syndrome PCOS

LifeMap Function Summary for FST Gene

During embryonic development, FST as signaling molecule is secreted from the following cells
It affects the following cells:

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for FST Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for FST Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IEA,IPI 16198295
GO:0038102 activin receptor antagonist activity IMP 12702211
GO:0043395 heparan sulfate proteoglycan binding IEA --
GO:0048185 activin binding IBA,IPI 12697670
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FST: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with FST: view

Animal Models for FST Gene

MGI Knock Outs for FST:
  • Fst Fst<tm1Zuk>

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for FST

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for FST Gene

Localization for FST Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FST Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for FST gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 4
cytosol 3
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
peroxisome 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for FST Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IBA 21873635
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FST: view

Pathways & Interactions for FST Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with FST: view

Pathways by source for FST Gene

1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for FST Gene
  • Signal transduction Activin A signaling regulation
1 GeneTex pathway for FST Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for FST Gene

Inactivates:
Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for FST Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000122 negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA 12702211
GO:0001501 skeletal system development IEA --
GO:0002244 hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation IDA 15451575
GO:0007275 multicellular organism development IBA 21873635
GO:0007276 gamete generation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FST: view

Drugs & Compounds for FST Gene

(29) Drugs for FST Gene - From: DrugBank, ClinicalTrials, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Furosemide Approved, Vet_approved Pharma GABAA receptors antagonist, Na+/2Cl-/K+ (NKCC) symporter inhibitor. Also antagonizes GABAA 288
D-Myo-Inositol-Hexasulphate Experimental Pharma Target 0
diuretics Pharma 1714
Sodium Potassium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors Pharma 240

(20) Additional Compounds for FST Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with FST: view

Transcripts for FST Gene

mRNA/cDNA for FST Gene

2 REFSEQ mRNAs :
7 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
5 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for FST

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for FST Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6
SP1: -
SP2:
SP3:

Relevant External Links for FST Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
FST

Expression for FST Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for FST Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for FST Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x7.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for FST Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Gallbladder (34.5) and Prostate (30.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for FST Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for FST Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for FST

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for FST Gene:

Hs.9914

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for FST Gene:

P19883-FST_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Isoform 1 is the predominant isoform in serum but is undetectable in follicular fluid.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for FST Gene

  • Pancreas(4.5)
  • Heart(3)
  • Nervous system(2.9)
  • Liver(2.8)
  • Muscle(2.8)
  • Thyroid gland(2.5)
  • Kidney(2.5)
  • Lung(2.4)
  • Stomach(2.4)
  • Intestine(2.3)
  • Adrenal gland(2.3)
  • Bone marrow(2.2)
  • Skin(2.2)
  • Blood(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with FST: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for FST Gene

Orthologs for FST Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for FST Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia FST 29 30
  • 99.42 (n)
OneToOne
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia FST 30
  • 93 (a)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia FST 29 30
  • 92.86 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia FST 29 30
  • 92.34 (n)
OneToOne
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia FST 30
  • 92 (a)
OneToOne
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Fst 29 16 30
  • 91.16 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Fst 29
  • 90.99 (n)
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves FST 29 30
  • 83.87 (n)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia FST 30
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia fst 29
  • 77.18 (n)
Str.10666 29
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.1094 29
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii fsta 29 30
  • 73.29 (n)
OneToMany
fstb 30
  • 67 (a)
OneToMany
fst 29
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP006282 29
  • 48.28 (n)
Fruit Fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Fs 30
  • 16 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for FST was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for FST Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for FST (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for FST (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for FST: view image
Alliance of Genome Resources:
Additional Orthologs for FST

Paralogs for FST Gene

Paralogs for FST Gene

(7) SIMAP similar genes for FST Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

  • FST_HUMAN
  • H0YA75_HUMAN
  • H0YAF9_HUMAN
  • Q6FHE1_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with FST: view

Variants for FST Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for FST Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 05 pos Variation AA Info Type
982235 Conflicting Interpretations: Orofacial cleft; not provided 53,482,961(+) G/A
NM_013409.3(FST):c.167G>A (p.Cys56Tyr)
MISSENSE
rs11745088 Benign: not provided 53,483,680(+) G/Cp.Glu152Gln
NM_013409.3(FST):c.454G>C (p.Glu152Gln)
MISSENSE
rs150238035 Benign: not provided 53,480,843(+) C/T
NM_013409.3(FST):c.52C>T (p.Leu18Phe)
MISSENSE
rs150492112 Benign: not provided 53,484,153(+) G/A
NM_013409.3(FST):c.581G>A (p.Arg194Gln)
MISSENSE
rs181213082 Benign: not provided 53,480,885(+) G/C
NM_013409.3(FST):c.85+9G>C
INTRON

dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for variants without ClinVar clinical significance for FST Gene

All consequence types are included: molecular consequences (e.g. missense, synonymous), and location-based (e.g. intron, upstream).

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for FST Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv5666n100 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1119032 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv328038 CNV deletion 16902084

Variation tolerance for FST Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 41.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.27; 25.35% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for FST Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
FST
Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)
FST

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assays for research

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FST Gene

Disorders for FST Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(16) MalaCards diseases for FST Gene - From: CVR, COP, and GCD

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
orofacial clefting syndrome
  • orofacial clefting
polycystic ovary syndrome
  • multicystic ovaries
orofacial cleft
  • cleft, orofacial
ectopic pregnancy
  • eccyesis
teratocarcinoma
  • mixed embryonal carcinoma and teratoma
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search FST in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for FST

Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
Atlas
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with FST: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for FST Gene

Publications for FST Gene

  1. Myostatin and follistatin polymorphisms interact with muscle phenotypes and ethnicity. (PMID: 19346981) Kostek MA … Pescatello LS (Medicine and science in sports and exercise 2009) 3 22 40
  2. Differential distribution of follistatin isoforms: application of a new FS315-specific immunoassay. (PMID: 15472207) Schneyer AL … Sluss PM (The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2004) 3 4 22
  3. Primary structure of the human follistatin precursor and its genomic organization. (PMID: 3380788) Shimasaki S … Guillemin R (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1988) 2 3 4
  4. Increased follistatin levels after oral contraceptive treatment in obese and non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. (PMID: 20093255) Chen MJ … Chen SU (Human reproduction (Oxford, England) 2010) 3 22
  5. Maternal genes and facial clefts in offspring: a comprehensive search for genetic associations in two population-based cleft studies from Scandinavia. (PMID: 20634891) Jugessur A … Murray JC (PloS one 2010) 3 40

Products for FST Gene

Sources for FST Gene