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Aliases for FRRS1L Gene

Aliases for FRRS1L Gene

  • Ferric Chelate Reductase 1 Like 2 3 5
  • Brain Protein CG-6 3 4
  • C9orf4 3 4
  • Ferric-Chelate Reductase 1-Like Protein 4
  • DOMON Domain-Containing Protein FRRS1L 3
  • Chromosome 9 Open Reading Frame 4 2
  • Ferric-Chelate Reductase 1-Like 2
  • EIEE37 3
  • CG-6 3
  • CG6 3

External Ids for FRRS1L Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for FRRS1L Gene

  • C9orf4

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for FRRS1L Gene

  • GC09M111900

Summaries for FRRS1L Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for FRRS1L Gene

  • This gene encodes a component of the outer-core of an alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor protein in the brain. The encoded protein is thought to interact with inner-core components of the receptor, and play a role in the modulation of glutamate signaling. Mutations in this gene are associated with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 37. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2016]

GeneCards Summary for FRRS1L Gene

FRRS1L (Ferric Chelate Reductase 1 Like) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with FRRS1L include Epileptic Encephalopathy, Early Infantile, 37 and Choreatic Disease. An important paralog of this gene is FRRS1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FRRS1L Gene

  • Important modulator of glutamate signaling pathway.

Additional gene information for FRRS1L Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for FRRS1L Gene

Genomics for FRRS1L Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for FRRS1L Gene

Promoters and enhancers for FRRS1L Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH09I109167 Promoter/Enhancer 0.8 EPDnew ENCODE 550.8 +0.0 37 0.1 EZH2 FRRS1L GC09M109160
GH09I109113 Promoter/Enhancer 2.7 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 29.1 +49.8 49785 9 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 ZNF2 IRF4 YY1 TMEM245 FRRS1L ELP1 CTNNAL1 MIR32 ENSG00000199331 FAM206A GC09M109081
GH09I109010 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 26.9 +154.5 154483 5.4 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 IRF4 YY1 CTNNAL1 PIR44811 GC09M109014 FRRS1L ELP1 TMEM245 ENSG00000199331 MIR32
GH09I109106 Enhancer 1.6 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 28.9 +57.7 57678 5.6 PKNOX1 ATF1 ARNT FEZF1 ZNF48 NCOA2 TCF12 GATA2 FOS ATF7 CTNNAL1 FRRS1L ELP1 MIR32 ENSG00000199331 TMEM245 GC09M109081
GH09I108931 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 22 +233.7 233657 3.5 HDGF PKNOX1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 POLR2B E2F8 ZNF143 ELP1 FAM206A FRRS1L CTNNAL1 ACTL7A
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around FRRS1L on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Locations for FRRS1L Gene

Genomic Locations for FRRS1L Gene
36,999 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for FRRS1L Gene

Genes around FRRS1L on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
FRRS1L Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for FRRS1L Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for FRRS1L Gene

Proteins for FRRS1L Gene

  • Protein details for FRRS1L Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    DOMON domain-containing protein FRRS1L
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5T4G4

    Protein attributes for FRRS1L Gene

    344 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    37270 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Component of the outer core of AMPAR complex. AMPAR complex consists of an inner core made of 4 pore-forming GluA/GRIA proteins (GRIA1, GRIA2, GRIA3 and GRIA4) and 4 major auxiliary subunits arranged in a twofold symmetry. One of the two pairs of distinct binding sites is occupied either by CNIH2, CNIH3 or CACNG2, CACNG3. The other harbors CACNG2, CACNG3, CACNG4, CACNG8 or GSG1L. This inner core of AMPAR complex is complemented by outer core constituents binding directly to the GluA/GRIA proteins at sites distinct from the interaction sites of the inner core constituents. Outer core constituents include at least PRRT1, PRRT2, CKAMP44/SHISA9, FRRS1L and NRN1. The proteins of the inner and outer core serve as a platform for other, more peripherally associated AMPAR constituents. Alone or in combination, these auxiliary subunits control the gating and pharmacology of the AMPAR complex and profoundly impact their biogenesis and protein processing (By similarity).

neXtProt entry for FRRS1L Gene

Post-translational modifications for FRRS1L Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for FRRS1L Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Abcam antibodies for FRRS1L
  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology (SCBT) Antibodies for FRRS1L

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for FRRS1L Gene

Domains & Families for FRRS1L Gene

Gene Families for FRRS1L Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for FRRS1L Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for FRRS1L Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

genes like me logo Genes that share domains with FRRS1L: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FRRS1L Gene

Function for FRRS1L Gene

Molecular function for FRRS1L Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Important modulator of glutamate signaling pathway.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for FRRS1L Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for FRRS1L Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003674 molecular_function ND --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FRRS1L: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with FRRS1L: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for FRRS1L Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for FRRS1L Gene

MGI Knock Outs for FRRS1L:

Animal Model Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for FRRS1L Gene

Localization for FRRS1L Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FRRS1L Gene

Cell membrane. Cell junction, synapse.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for FRRS1L gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 4
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for FRRS1L Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005575 cellular_component ND --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IEA --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
GO:0030054 cell junction IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FRRS1L: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for FRRS1L Gene

Pathways & Interactions for FRRS1L Gene

SuperPathways for FRRS1L Gene

No Data Available

Interacting Proteins for FRRS1L Gene

Selected Interacting proteins: Q9P0K9-FRS1L_HUMAN for FRRS1L Gene via IID

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for FRRS1L Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:1900449 regulation of glutamate receptor signaling pathway IMP 27236917
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FRRS1L: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for FRRS1L Gene

Drugs & Compounds for FRRS1L Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for FRRS1L Gene

mRNA/cDNA for FRRS1L Gene

(3) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(1) Additional mRNA sequences :
(8) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for FRRS1L Gene

Ferric-chelate reductase 1-like:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for FRRS1L Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for FRRS1L Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for FRRS1L Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for FRRS1L Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for FRRS1L Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Nucleus accumbens (basal ganglia) (x5.2), Brain - Anterior cingulate cortex (BA24) (x4.9), Brain - Frontal Cortex (BA9) (x4.9), Brain - Cerebellar Hemisphere (x4.7), Brain - Cerebellum (x4.1), and Brain - Cortex (x4.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for FRRS1L Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Frontal cortex (45.0) and Fetal Brain (17.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for FRRS1L Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for FRRS1L Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of FRRS1L Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for FRRS1L Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for FRRS1L Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed in adult and fetal brain. Very weak expression in medulla, spinal cord and in adult ovary.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with FRRS1L: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for FRRS1L Gene

Orthologs for FRRS1L Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for FRRS1L Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia FRRS1L 33 34
  • 99.52 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia FRRS1L 34
  • 98 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia FRRS1L 34
  • 96 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia FRRS1L 33 34
  • 94.37 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia FRRS1L 33 34
  • 92.4 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Frrs1l 33 16 34
  • 87.94 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Frrs1l 33
  • 87.71 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves FRRS1L 34
  • 90 (a)
C9ORF4 33
  • 84.64 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia FRRS1L 34
  • 81 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100490518 33
  • 75.95 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii LOC100536668 33
  • 76.6 (n)
  • 75 (a)
Species where no ortholog for FRRS1L was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for FRRS1L Gene

Gene Tree for FRRS1L (if available)
Gene Tree for FRRS1L (if available)

Paralogs for FRRS1L Gene

Paralogs for FRRS1L Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with FRRS1L: view

Variants for FRRS1L Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for FRRS1L Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1054228594 pathogenic, Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 37 109,137,616(-) G/A coding_sequence_variant, stop_gained
rs138531590 benign, Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 37 109,149,647(-) C/T coding_sequence_variant, synonymous_variant
rs148986846 uncertain-significance, Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 37 109,141,519(-) A/G coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs149005559 uncertain-significance, Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 37 109,147,118(-) A/G coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs199500767 benign, Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 37 109,147,087(-) A/G coding_sequence_variant, synonymous_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for FRRS1L Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3307202 CNV mobile element insertion 20981092
esv3402109 CNV insertion 20981092
esv3621429 CNV loss 21293372
esv3621430 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1077170 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1126916 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1137495 CNV deletion 24896259

Variation tolerance for FRRS1L Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 53.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.36; 26.81% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for FRRS1L Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FRRS1L Gene

Disorders for FRRS1L Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(6) MalaCards diseases for FRRS1L Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, DISEASES, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards


  • Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 37 (EIEE37) [MIM:616981]: A form of epileptic encephalopathy, a heterogeneous group of severe childhood onset epilepsies characterized by refractory seizures, neurodevelopmental impairment, and poor prognosis. Development is normal prior to seizure onset, after which cognitive and motor delays become apparent. EIEE37 is an autosomal recessive, severe form manifesting in the first years of life. Affected individuals show hyperkinetic movement disorder with choreoathetosis, spasticity, rigidity, mental retardation, absent speech, and impaired volitional movements. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:27236917, ECO:0000269 PubMed:27239025}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for FRRS1L

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with FRRS1L: view

No data available for Genatlas for FRRS1L Gene

Publications for FRRS1L Gene

  1. Cloning, mapping, and expression of a novel brain-specific transcript in the familial dysautonomia candidate region on chromosome 9q31. (PMID: 10603000) Chadwick BP … Slaugenhaupt SA (Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 2000) 2 3 4 58
  2. Loss-of-Function Mutations in FRRS1L Lead to an Epileptic-Dyskinetic Encephalopathy. (PMID: 27236917) Madeo M … Kruer MC (American journal of human genetics 2016) 3 4 58
  3. Epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spike-and-wave during sleep maps to a homozygous truncating mutation in AMPA receptor component FRRS1L. (PMID: 27239025) Shaheen R … Alkuraya FS (Clinical genetics 2016) 3 4 58
  4. DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 9. (PMID: 15164053) Humphray SJ … Dunham I (Nature 2004) 3 4 58
  5. Architecture of the human interactome defines protein communities and disease networks. (PMID: 28514442) Huttlin EL … Harper JW (Nature 2017) 3 58

Products for FRRS1L Gene

Sources for FRRS1L Gene

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