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Aliases for FH Gene

Aliases for FH Gene

  • Fumarate Hydratase 2 3 5
  • Fumarase 3 4
  • Fumarate Hydratase, Mitochondrial 3
  • EC 4
  • HLRCC 3
  • MCUL1 3
  • FMRD 3
  • LRCC 3
  • MCL 3

External Ids for FH Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for FH Gene

  • GC01M239746
  • GC01M237114
  • GC01M237957
  • GC01M238702
  • GC01M237986
  • GC01M241660
  • GC01M212119

Summaries for FH Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for FH Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is an enzymatic component of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, or Krebs cycle, and catalyzes the formation of L-malate from fumarate. It exists in both a cytosolic form and an N-terminal extended form, differing only in the translation start site used. The N-terminal extended form is targeted to the mitochondrion, where the removal of the extension generates the same form as in the cytoplasm. It is similar to some thermostable class II fumarases and functions as a homotetramer. Mutations in this gene can cause fumarase deficiency and lead to progressive encephalopathy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for FH Gene

FH (Fumarate Hydratase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with FH include Fumarase Deficiency and Hereditary Leiomyomatosis And Renal Cell Cancer. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Citrate cycle (TCA cycle). Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include lyase activity and fumarate hydratase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FH Gene

  • Also acts as a tumor suppressor.

Additional gene information for FH Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for FH Gene

Genomics for FH Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for FH Gene

Promoters and enhancers for FH Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH01J241517 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 650.7 +0.4 440 2.8 HDGF FOXA2 PKNOX1 SMAD1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 FH LOC105373230 CHML GC01P241514
GH01J241518 Enhancer 0.2 Ensembl 0.7 +2.4 2384 0.4 CHML FH GC01P241514
GH01J241507 Enhancer 0.2 FANTOM5 0.4 +12.1 12133 0.3 KMO CHML GC01M241508 FH LOC105373230
GH01J241529 Enhancer 0.2 FANTOM5 0.4 -10.2 -10151 0 KMO FH
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around FH on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the FH gene promoter:
  • NRSF form 1
  • NRSF form 2
  • FOXO4
  • HFH-3
  • FOXI1
  • p53
  • FOXD3
  • NF-kappaB1
  • FOXO1

Genomic Locations for FH Gene

Genomic Locations for FH Gene
22,229 bases
Minus strand
22,229 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for FH Gene

Genes around FH on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
FH Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for FH Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for FH Gene

Proteins for FH Gene

  • Protein details for FH Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Fumarate hydratase, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B1ANK7

    Protein attributes for FH Gene

    510 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    54637 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotetramer.
    • There are 2 substrate-binding sites: the catalytic A site, and the non-catalytic B site that may play a role in the transfer of substrate or product between the active site and the solvent. Alternatively, the B site may bind allosteric effectors (By similarity).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for FH Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for FH Gene


neXtProt entry for FH Gene

Post-translational modifications for FH Gene

  • Ubiquitination at isoforms=294
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for FH Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for FH Gene

Domains & Families for FH Gene

Gene Families for FH Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Potential drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the class-II fumarase/aspartase family. Fumarase subfamily.
  • Belongs to the class-II fumarase/aspartase family. Fumarase subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with FH: view

Function for FH Gene

Molecular function for FH Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Also acts as a tumor suppressor.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
(S)-malate = fumarate + H(2)O.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
fumarate hydratase,mitochondrial,catalyzing the seventh step of citric acid cycle

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for FH Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for FH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004333 fumarate hydratase activity IBA,EXP --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 25416956
GO:0016829 lyase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FH: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with FH: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for FH Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for FH Gene

MGI Knock Outs for FH:
  • Fh1 Fh1<tm1.1Pjp>

miRNA for FH Gene

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for FH
  • Addgene plasmids for FH

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for FH Gene

Localization for FH Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FH Gene

Isoform Mitochondrial: Mitochondrion.
Isoform Cytoplasmic: Cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for FH gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 3
nucleus 2

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for FH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm TAS 8200987
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA,TAS --
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix TAS --
GO:0045239 tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme complex IEA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome HDA 20458337
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FH: view

Pathways & Interactions for FH Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with FH: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P07954-FUMH_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Carbohydrate metabolism; tricarboxylic acid cycle; (S)-malate from fumarate: step 1/1.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for FH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006099 tricarboxylic acid cycle TAS --
GO:0006106 fumarate metabolic process TAS,IBA --
GO:0006108 malate metabolic process IBA --
GO:0048873 homeostasis of number of cells within a tissue IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FH: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for FH Gene

Drugs & Compounds for FH Gene

(25) Drugs for FH Gene - From: ClinicalTrials, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Heparin Approved, Investigational Pharma Antagonist 905
Miconazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Pharma Channel blocker, Antagonist, Pore Blocker 3838
Mipomersen Approved, Investigational Pharma 19
Water Approved Pharma 0
SB-649868 Experimental, Investigational Pharma Antagonist 0

(18) Additional Compounds for FH Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
L-Malic acid
  • (-)-L-Malic acid
  • (S)-(-)-Hydroxysuccinic acid
  • L-2-Hydroxybutanedioic acid
  • L-Apple acid
  • Malate
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with FH: view

Transcripts for FH Gene

mRNA/cDNA for FH Gene

Unigene Clusters for FH Gene

Fumarate hydratase:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for FH
  • Addgene plasmids for FH

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for FH Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for FH Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for FH Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for FH Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for FH Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart - Left Ventricle (x4.3).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for FH Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver, secretome (13.2), Nasal epithelium (8.2), and Heart (6.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for FH Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for FH Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of FH Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for FH Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for FH Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed in red blood cells; underexpressed in red blood cells (cytoplasm) of patients with hereditary non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia of unknown etiology.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for FH Gene

  • Nervous system(4.8)
  • Liver(4.5)
  • Skin(4.3)
  • Kidney(2.9)
  • Muscle(2.9)
  • Intestine(2.8)
  • Heart(2.6)
  • Adrenal gland(2)
  • Eye(2)
  • Lung(2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for FH Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • endocrine
  • immune
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • reproductive
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
  • urinary
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cerebellum
  • cranial nerve
  • ear
  • eye
  • face
  • forehead
  • head
  • larynx
  • meninges
  • middle ear
  • mouth
  • neck
  • nose
  • outer ear
  • skull
  • thyroid
  • tongue
  • vocal cord
  • heart
  • heart valve
  • lung
  • trachea
  • abdominal wall
  • adrenal gland
  • biliary tract
  • gallbladder
  • kidney
  • liver
  • pancreas
  • urinary bladder
  • uterus
  • blood
  • blood vessel
  • coagulation system
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • red blood cell
  • skin
  • sweat gland
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with FH: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery for FH Gene

Orthologs for FH Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for FH Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia FH 34 33
  • 99.35 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia FH 34 33
  • 91.75 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia FH 34 33
  • 91.6 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia FH 34
  • 90 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia FH 34
  • 88 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Fh1 16 34 33
  • 87.38 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Fh 33
  • 85.73 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves FH 34 33
  • 78.37 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia FH 34
  • 91 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100491219 33
  • 77.32 (n)
Str.10251 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.24299 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii fh 34 33
  • 73.86 (n)
zgc66253 33
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.8748 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG4094 35
  • 70 (a)
CG4095 34
  • 68 (a)
CG6140 34 35
  • 67 (a)
l(1)G0255 34 33
  • 65.6 (n)
CG31874 34
  • 57 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP001884 33
  • 63.74 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea fum-1 34 33
  • 67.25 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0D00902g 33
  • 62.81 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes FUM1 36 34 33
  • 61.33 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ACR013C 33
  • 58.7 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons FUM2 33
  • 66.09 (n)
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.16566 33
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.9657 33
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.20449 33
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os.6783 33
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.4136 33
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.3679 33
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes fum1 33
  • 60.59 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU10008 33
  • 59.38 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea Cin.8482 33
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.8482 33
Species where no ortholog for FH was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for FH Gene

Gene Tree for FH (if available)
Gene Tree for FH (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for FH: view image

Paralogs for FH Gene Pseudogenes for FH Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with FH: view

No data available for Paralogs for FH Gene

Variants for FH Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for FH Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1057517734 likely-pathogenic, not provided, Fumarase deficiency 241,504,041(-) C/A splice_donor_variant
rs1057524385 likely-pathogenic, not provided, Fumarase deficiency 241,504,227(-) G/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1060499627 uncertain-significance, Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer, Hereditary cancer-predisposing syndrome 241,519,586(-) C/A/T 5_prime_UTR_variant, intron_variant
rs1060499629 pathogenic, Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer 241,517,172(-) TGCCACTTACTG/TG coding_sequence_variant, intron_variant, splice_donor_variant
rs1060499630 pathogenic, Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer 241,513,659(-) G/A coding_sequence_variant, stop_gained

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for FH Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1002214 CNV gain 25217958
nsv549460 CNV gain 21841781

Variation tolerance for FH Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 18% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.31; 25.98% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for FH Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FH Gene

Disorders for FH Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(30) MalaCards diseases for FH Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
fumarase deficiency
  • fmrd
hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer
  • hlrcc
hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma syndromes
  • paragangliomas 4
  • leiomyomatosis, no icd-o subtype
leiomyoma cutis
  • cutaneous leiomyoma
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search FH in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Fumarase deficiency (FMRD) [MIM:606812]: A severe autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by early-onset hypotonia, profound psychomotor retardation, and brain abnormalities, such as agenesis of the corpus callosum, gyral defects, and ventriculomegaly. Many patients show neonatal distress, metabolic acidosis, and/or encephalopathy. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:9635293, ECO:0000269 Ref.17}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) [MIM:150800]: A disorder characterized by predisposition to cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas, and papillary type 2 renal cancer which occurs in about 20% of patients. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11865300}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Genatlas disease for FH Gene

fumaricaciduria,mitochondrial encephalomyopathy

Additional Disease Information for FH

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with FH: view

Publications for FH Gene

  1. Germline SDHB mutations and familial renal cell carcinoma. (PMID: 18728283) Ricketts C … Maher ER (Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2008) 3 22 44 58
  2. Association of germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase gene and uterine fibroids in women with hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer. (PMID: 19075141) Stewart L … Toro JR (Archives of dermatology 2008) 3 22 44 58
  3. Mutations in the fumarate hydratase gene cause hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer in families in North America. (PMID: 12772087) Toro JR … Zbar B (American journal of human genetics 2003) 3 22 44 58
  4. Germline fumarate hydratase mutations in families with multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomata. (PMID: 14632190) Martinez-Mir A … Zlotogorski A (The Journal of investigative dermatology 2003) 3 22 44 58
  5. Germline mutations in FH predispose to dominantly inherited uterine fibroids, skin leiomyomata and papillary renal cell cancer. (PMID: 11865300) Tomlinson IP … Multiple Leiomyoma Consortium (Nature genetics 2002) 3 4 22 58

Products for FH Gene

Sources for FH Gene

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