Aliases for FGFR2 Gene
External Ids for FGFR2 Gene
Previous HGNC Symbols for FGFR2 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for FGFR2 Gene
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family, where amino acid sequence is highly conserved between members and throughout evolution. FGFR family members differ from one another in their ligand affinities and tissue distribution. A full-length representative protein consists of an extracellular region, composed of three immunoglobulin-like domains, a single hydrophobic membrane-spanning segment and a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domain. The extracellular portion of the protein interacts with fibroblast growth factors, setting in motion a cascade of downstream signals, ultimately influencing mitogenesis and differentiation. This particular family member is a high-affinity receptor for acidic, basic and/or keratinocyte growth factor, depending on the isoform. Mutations in this gene are associated with Crouzon syndrome, Pfeiffer syndrome, Craniosynostosis, Apert syndrome, Jackson-Weiss syndrome, Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome, Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, and syndromic craniosynostosis. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
The FGFR proteins are involved in a wide array of pathways known to play a signficant role in cancer. Activation of these receptors can lead to activation of the RAS-MAPK pathway and the PI3K-AKT pathway, among others. The mechanisms by which FGFR can be misregulated vary between cancers. Amplification of the receptors has been observed in lung and breast cancers, coding mutations and deletions have been seen in many cancers, and more recently, FGFR fusions that lead to pathway actiation have been demonstrated to have oncogenic potential across multiple cancer types. The targeted therapeutics ponatinib, dovitinib and pazopanib have seen success in treating over-active FGFR signalling, prompting use of diagnostic sequencing targeting the FGFR genes, especially in lung cancer patients.
GeneCards Summary for FGFR2 Gene
FGFR2 (Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with FGFR2 include Pfeiffer Syndrome and Crouzon Syndrome. Among its related pathways are RET signaling and Signaling by FGFR2 fusions. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and protein kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is FGFR1.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for FGFR2 Gene
Tyrosine-protein kinase that acts as cell-surface receptor for fibroblast growth factors and plays an essential role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis, and in the regulation of embryonic development. Required for normal embryonic patterning, trophoblast function, limb bud development, lung morphogenesis, osteogenesis and skin development. Plays an essential role in the regulation of osteoblast differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, and is required for normal skeleton development. Promotes cell proliferation in keratinocytes and immature osteoblasts, but promotes apoptosis in differentiated osteoblasts. Phosphorylates PLCG1, FRS2 and PAK4. Ligand binding leads to the activation of several signaling cascades. Activation of PLCG1 leads to the production of the cellular signaling molecules diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Phosphorylation of FRS2 triggers recruitment of GRB2, GAB1, PIK3R1 and SOS1, and mediates activation of RAS, MAPK1/ERK2, MAPK3/ERK1 and the MAP kinase signaling pathway, as well as of the AKT1 signaling pathway. FGFR2 signaling is down-regulated by ubiquitination, internalization and degradation. Mutations that lead to constitutive kinase activation or impair normal FGFR2 maturation, internalization and degradation lead to aberrant signaling. Over-expressed FGFR2 promotes activation of STAT1.
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are mitogenic signaling molecules that have roles in angiogenesis, wound healing, cell migration, neural outgrowth and embryonic development. FGF receptors (FGFRs) are transmembrane catalytic receptors with intracellular tyrosine kinase activity.