This gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) which belongs to the rhodopsin family of GPRs. The encoded protein functions as a receptor for free fatty acids, including omega-3, and participates in suppressing anti-inflammatory responses and insulin sensitizing. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, F... See more...

Aliases for FFAR4 Gene

Aliases for FFAR4 Gene

  • Free Fatty Acid Receptor 4 2 3 4 5
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acid Receptor 1 2 3 4
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor GT01 3 4
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor PGR4 3 4
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor 120 3 4
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor 129 3 4
  • GPR120 3 4
  • GPR129 3 4
  • O3FAR1 3 4
  • PGR4 3 4
  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor 129 2
  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor 120 2
  • BMIQ10 3
  • GT01 3

External Ids for FFAR4 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for FFAR4 Gene

  • GPR129
  • GPR120
  • O3FAR1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for FFAR4 Gene

  • GC10P095329

Summaries for FFAR4 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for FFAR4 Gene

  • This gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) which belongs to the rhodopsin family of GPRs. The encoded protein functions as a receptor for free fatty acids, including omega-3, and participates in suppressing anti-inflammatory responses and insulin sensitizing. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

GeneCards Summary for FFAR4 Gene

FFAR4 (Free Fatty Acid Receptor 4) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with FFAR4 include Body Mass Index Quantitative Trait Locus 10. Among its related pathways are Incretin synthesis, secretion, and inactivation and Free fatty acid receptors. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include G protein-coupled receptor activity and taste receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GALR1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for FFAR4 Gene

  • Receptor for medium and long-chain free fatty acids (FFAs). Signals via a G(q)/G(11)-coupled pathway. Acts as a receptor for omega-3 fatty acids and mediates robust anti-inflammatory effects, particularly in macrophages and fat cells. The anti-inflammatory effects involve inhibition of TAK1 through a beta-arrestin 2 (ARRB2)/TAB1-dependent effect, but independent of the G(q)/G(11)-coupled pathway. Mediates potent insulin sensitizing and antidiabetic effects by repressing macrophage-induced tissue inflammation. May mediate the taste of fatty acids. Mediates FFA-induced inhibition of apoptosis in enteroendocrine cells. May play a role in the regulation of adipocyte development and differentiation.

Gene Wiki entry for FFAR4 Gene

Additional gene information for FFAR4 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for FFAR4 Gene

Genomics for FFAR4 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for FFAR4 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for FFAR4 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH10J093566 Promoter 1.2 EPDnew Ensembl 750.6 +0.5 496 1.4 MYC MAX CEBPG SP7 ELF1 ZSCAN21 ZIC2 CEBPA ZBTB8A ZEB2 FFAR4 RBP4 NONHSAG006546.2
GH10J093555 Promoter/Enhancer 1.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 750.4 -10.5 -10508 2.2 CTCF RAD21 EGR1 REST ZNF143 NFE2 PKNOX1 ZBTB17 SMC3 CREM LOC105378436 FFAR4 HSALNG0079754 lnc-CEP55-1
GH10J093567 Enhancer 0.3 FANTOM5 752.3 +1.8 1840 0.1 EZH2 FFAR4 NONHSAG006546.2
GH10J093591 Enhancer 0.7 Ensembl ENCODE 12.2 +25.6 25596 1.6 NR2F2 POLR2A PAF1 SSRP1 IKZF1 RXRA MAX PDE6C FFAR4 RBP4 NONHSAG006546.2
GH10J093514 Promoter/Enhancer 0.7 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.9 -50.8 -50780 1.5 CEP55 FFAR4 CYP26A1 RF00001-047 RNA5SP323 piR-48553-045
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around FFAR4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Locations for FFAR4 Gene

Genomic Locations for FFAR4 Gene
chr10:93,566,204-93,604,480
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
38,277 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr10:95,326,422-95,364,237
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
37,816 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for FFAR4 Gene

Genes around FFAR4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
FFAR4 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for FFAR4 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for FFAR4 Gene

Proteins for FFAR4 Gene

  • Protein details for FFAR4 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q5NUL3-FFAR4_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Free fatty acid receptor 4
    Protein Accession:
    Q5NUL3
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q495H1
    • Q5VY25
    • Q5VY26
    • Q7Z605
    • Q86SM7

    Protein attributes for FFAR4 Gene

    Size:
    377 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    42241 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with ARRB2 following docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) stimulation.
    Miscellaneous:
    • It has been shown that FFA alpha-linolenic acid stimulates secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) from the gastro-intestinal tract (PubMed:15619630). However, this ligand is an agonist of both FFAR4 and FFAR1 and the latter has been shown to mediate GLP-1 release too (PubMed:18519800). So the precise role of FFAR4 in mediating needs to be confirmed.

    Alternative splice isoforms for FFAR4 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for FFAR4 Gene

Post-translational modifications for FFAR4 Gene

  • Phosphorylated. FFA stimulation facilitates phosphorylation.
  • Glycosylation at Asn21
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for FFAR4 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for FFAR4 Gene

Domains & Families for FFAR4 Gene

Gene Families for FFAR4 Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • G-protein coupled receptors
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for FFAR4 Gene

InterPro:
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for FFAR4 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • G-protein coupled receptor PGR4 (O3FA1_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q5NUL3

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

FFAR4_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with FFAR4: view

Function for FFAR4 Gene

Molecular function for FFAR4 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor for medium and long-chain free fatty acids (FFAs). Signals via a G(q)/G(11)-coupled pathway. Acts as a receptor for omega-3 fatty acids and mediates robust anti-inflammatory effects, particularly in macrophages and fat cells. The anti-inflammatory effects involve inhibition of TAK1 through a beta-arrestin 2 (ARRB2)/TAB1-dependent effect, but independent of the G(q)/G(11)-coupled pathway. Mediates potent insulin sensitizing and antidiabetic effects by repressing macrophage-induced tissue inflammation. May mediate the taste of fatty acids. Mediates FFA-induced inhibition of apoptosis in enteroendocrine cells. May play a role in the regulation of adipocyte development and differentiation.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for FFAR4 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for FFAR4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004930 G protein-coupled receptor activity IBA 21873635
GO:0005504 fatty acid binding IEA,ISS --
GO:0008289 lipid binding IEA --
GO:0008527 taste receptor activity IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FFAR4: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with FFAR4: view

Animal Models for FFAR4 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for FFAR4:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for FFAR4

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for FFAR4

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for FFAR4 Gene

Localization for FFAR4 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FFAR4 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Note=Colocalized with ARRB2 following DHA treatment. {ECO:0000250}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for FFAR4 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 1
nucleus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Plasma membrane (1)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for FFAR4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane IBA 21873635
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
GO:0030139 endocytic vesicle IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FFAR4: view

Pathways & Interactions for FFAR4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with FFAR4: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for FFAR4 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for FFAR4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA,TAS --
GO:0010827 regulation of glucose transmembrane transport IEA,ISS --
GO:0043066 negative regulation of apoptotic process IEA,ISS --
GO:0045444 fat cell differentiation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FFAR4: view

Drugs & Compounds for FFAR4 Gene

(22) Drugs for FFAR4 Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, DGIdb, and Tocris

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Fish oil Approved Nutra Target, agonist, inhibits downstream inflammation cascades 0
linoleic acid Approved, Experimental Pharma Full agonist, Agonist, Pore Blocker, Channel blocker 0
oleic acid Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Pharma Full agonist, Agonist, Activation, Activator 0
Myristic acid Experimental Pharma 0
BMS-488043 Investigational Pharma Target 0

(1) Additional Compounds for FFAR4 Gene - From: Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
TC-G 1008
1621175-65-2

(5) Tocris Compounds for FFAR4 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Diphenyleneiodonium chloride GPR3 agonist; also inhibits NOS and NADPH oxidases 4673-26-1
PF9 tetrasodium salt Potent GPR17 agonist 851265-78-6
Prosaptide TX14(A) Potent GPR37 and GPR37L1 agonist 196391-82-9
TC-G 1008 Potent and selective GPR39 agonist 1621175-65-2
TC-O 9311 Potent and selective GPR139 agonist 444932-31-4

(7) ApexBio Compounds for FFAR4 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
4-CMTB 300851-67-6
AH 7614 FFA4/GPR120 antagonist 6326-06-3
GPR120 modulator 1 GPR120 modulator 1050506-75-6
GPR120 modulator 2 GPR120 modulator 1050506-87-0
GSK 137647 FFA4/GPR120 antagonist,potent and selective 349085-82-1
MEDICA 16 87272-20-6
TUG 424 1082058-99-8
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with FFAR4: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for FFAR4 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for FFAR4 Gene

(2) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(10) Additional mRNA sequences :
(9) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(3) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for FFAR4

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for FFAR4

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for FFAR4 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for FFAR4 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
FFAR4
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
FFAR4

Expression for FFAR4 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for FFAR4 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for FFAR4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pituitary (x12.8) and Colon - Transverse (x9.8).

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of FFAR4 Gene:

FFAR4

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for FFAR4 Gene:

Hs.661022

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for FFAR4 Gene:

Q5NUL3-FFAR4_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Abundant expression in the intestinal tract. Highly expressed in adipose tissue, small intestine and pancreas.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for FFAR4 Gene

  • Intestine(2.5)
  • Pancreas(2.4)
  • Stomach(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with FFAR4: view

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for FFAR4 Gene

Orthologs for FFAR4 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for FFAR4 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia FFAR4 33
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
O3FAR1 32
  • 99.82 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia O3FAR1 32
  • 88.58 (n)
FFAR4 33
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia LOC533266 32
  • 86.43 (n)
FFAR4 33
  • 83 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ffar4 32
  • 85.19 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ffar4 17 33 32
  • 84.95 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia FFAR4 33
  • 66 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves O3FAR1 32
  • 64.34 (n)
FFAR4 33
  • 53 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia FFAR4 33
  • 53 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ffar4 32
  • 57.7 (n)
Species where no ortholog for FFAR4 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for FFAR4 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for FFAR4 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for FFAR4 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for FFAR4: view image

Paralogs for FFAR4 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for FFAR4 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

  • FFAR4_HUMAN
  • S4R3L2_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with FFAR4: view

Variants for FFAR4 Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FFAR4 Gene

FFAR4_HUMAN-Q5NUL3
Genetic variations in FFAR4 define the body mass index quantitative trait locus 10 (BMIQ10) [MIM:607514]. Variance in body mass index is a susceptibility factor for obesity.

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for FFAR4 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 10 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs116454156 risk-factor, Body mass index quantitative trait locus 10, - 93,587,284(+) G/A coding_sequence_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant, missense_variant
rs1000116072 -- 93,572,085(+) T/C intron_variant
rs1000133083 -- 93,586,891(+) C/T genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000171727 -- 93,570,425(+) A/G intron_variant
rs1000330755 -- 93,568,813(+) TGTTTGTTTGTTT/TGTTTGTTT intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for FFAR4 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3579075 CNV loss 25503493

Variation tolerance for FFAR4 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 26.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 7.32; 81.46% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for FFAR4 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
FFAR4
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
FFAR4

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

Disorders for FFAR4 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for FFAR4 Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
body mass index quantitative trait locus 10
  • obesity
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search FFAR4 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for FFAR4

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with FFAR4: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for FFAR4 Gene

Publications for FFAR4 Gene

  1. Free fatty acids regulate gut incretin glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion through GPR120. (PMID: 15619630) Hirasawa A … Tsujimoto G (Nature medicine 2005) 2 3 4 23 56
  2. Agonism with the omega-3 fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid mediates phosphorylation of both the short and long isoforms of the human GPR120 receptor. (PMID: 20471368) Burns RN … Moniri NH (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2010) 2 3 4 56
  3. Dysfunction of lipid sensor GPR120 leads to obesity in both mouse and human. (PMID: 22343897) Ichimura A … Froguel P (Nature 2012) 3 4 56
  4. GPR120 is an omega-3 fatty acid receptor mediating potent anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects. (PMID: 20813258) Oh DY … Olefsky JM (Cell 2010) 2 3 56
  5. Cloning, expression, and pharmacological characterization of the GPR120 free fatty acid receptor from cynomolgus monkey: comparison with human GPR120 splice variants. (PMID: 19723586) Moore K … Duffy R (Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology 2009) 2 3 56

Products for FFAR4 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for FFAR4

Sources for FFAR4 Gene