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Aliases for FFAR2 Gene

Aliases for FFAR2 Gene

  • Free Fatty Acid Receptor 2 2 3 5
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor 43 3 4
  • GPR43 3 4
  • Free Fatty Acid Activated Receptor 2 3
  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor 43 2
  • Fatty Acid Receptor 2 3
  • GPCR43 4
  • FFA2R 3
  • FFA2 4

External Ids for FFAR2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for FFAR2 Gene

  • GPR43

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for FFAR2 Gene

  • GC19P040633
  • GC19P035940
  • GC19P032447
  • GC19P036042
  • GC19P035508
  • GC19P035509
  • GC19P035518
  • GC19P035538
  • GC19P036143
  • GC19P036227
  • GC19P036403

Summaries for FFAR2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for FFAR2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the GP40 family of G protein-coupled receptors that are clustered together on chromosome 19. The encoded protein is a receptor for short chain free fatty acids and may be involved in the inflammatory response and in regulating lipid plasma levels. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

GeneCards Summary for FFAR2 Gene

FFAR2 (Free Fatty Acid Receptor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors and cAMP signaling pathway. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and lipid binding. An important paralog of this gene is GPR42.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FFAR2 Gene

  • G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by a major product of dietary fiber digestion, the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and that plays a role in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis and in intestinal immunity. In omnivorous mammals, the short chain fatty acids acetate, propionate and butyrate are produced primarily by the gut microbiome that metabolizes dietary fibers. SCFAs serve as a source of energy but also act as signaling molecules. That G protein-coupled receptor is probably coupled to the pertussis toxin-sensitive, G(i/o)-alpha family of G proteins but also to the Gq family (PubMed:12496283, PubMed:12711604, PubMed:23589301). Its activation results in the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, the mobilization of intracellular calcium, the phosphorylation of the MAPK3/ERK1 and MAPK1/ERK2 kinases and the inhibition of intracellular cAMP accumulation. May play a role in glucose homeostasis by regulating the secretion of GLP-1, in response to short-chain fatty acids accumulating in the intestine. May also regulate the production of LEP/Leptin, a hormone acting on the central nervous system to inhibit food intake. Finally, may also regulate whole-body energy homeostasis through adipogenesis regulating both differentiation and lipid storage of adipocytes. In parallel to its role in energy homeostasis, may also mediate the activation of the inflammatory and immune responses by SCFA in the intestine, regulating the rapid production of chemokines and cytokines. May also play a role in the resolution of the inflammatory response and control chemotaxis in neutrophils. In addition to SCFAs, may also be activated by the extracellular lectin FCN1 in a process leading to activation of monocytes and inducing the secretion of interleukin-8/IL-8 in response to the presence of microbes (PubMed:21037097). Among SCFAs, the fatty acids containing less than 6 carbons, the most potent activators are probably acetate, propionate and butyrate (PubMed:12496283, PubMed:12711604). Exhibits a SCFA-independent constitutive G protein-coupled receptor activity (PubMed:23066016).

Tocris Summary for FFAR2 Gene

  • Free Fatty Acid (FFA) receptors are a group of Gq/11 protein-coupled receptors currently classified into FFA1, FFA2, FFA3 and FFA4 subtypes. FFA receptors are concentrated in pancreatic islet cells, immune cells and in the brain and are important in immunity and metabolism.

Gene Wiki entry for FFAR2 Gene

Additional gene information for FFAR2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for FFAR2 Gene

Genomics for FFAR2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for FFAR2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for FFAR2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH19I035897 Promoter/Enhancer 2.7 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 8.9 +460.2 460151 13 CLOCK FEZF1 IRF4 YY1 ZNF213 ZNF143 ZNF548 SP3 NFYC ZFP41 NFKBID TYROBP HCST ENSG00000280194 ZNF567 ZNF566 ZNF790 ZNF529 TMEM147-AS1 ZNF260
GH19I035445 Enhancer 1.6 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 13.4 +4.1 4133 4.7 PKNOX1 ATF1 BATF IRF4 ZNF354C ETV6 RUNX3 RXRA SMAD5 YY2 FFAR2 ZNF146 ZNF599 ZNF181 WTIP ZNF302 NFKBID TYROBP U2AF1L4 UPK1A
GH19I035430 Enhancer 1.3 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 13.8 -12.7 -12700 1.6 HDAC1 MEIS2 PKNOX1 ZNF280D MAFG ZNF518A ZNF610 HDAC2 ZNF169 ZNF548 NFKBID ZNF792 FFAR2 ZFP14 RBM42 TYROBP KMT2B KRTDAP DMKN HAUS5
GH19I035435 Enhancer 1.6 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.2 -7.2 -7174 2.7 HDAC1 BATF IRF4 YY1 ATF7 ETV6 FOS IKZF2 RUNX3 ZNF174 ZNF599 NFKBID TMEM147-AS1 FFAR2 LIN37 KRTDAP DMKN CD22 SBSN FAM187B
GH19I035202 Enhancer 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 9.9 -238.4 -238366 6.1 HDGF PKNOX1 SMAD1 ARNT YBX1 IRF4 POLR2B ZNF766 CBX5 ZNF207 LOC105372379 FXYD5 ZNF599 HAUS5 KIAA0355 ZNF792 TMEM147-AS1 USF2 FAM187B LSR
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around FFAR2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the FFAR2 gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for FFAR2 Gene

Genomic Locations for FFAR2 Gene
chr19:35,443,907-35,451,767
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
7,861 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr19:35,934,809-35,942,669
(GRCh37/hg19)

Genomic View for FFAR2 Gene

Genes around FFAR2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
FFAR2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for FFAR2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for FFAR2 Gene

Proteins for FFAR2 Gene

  • Protein details for FFAR2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    O15552-FFAR2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Free fatty acid receptor 2
    Protein Accession:
    O15552
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B0M0J9
    • Q4VAZ3
    • Q4VAZ5
    • Q4VBL5

    Protein attributes for FFAR2 Gene

    Size:
    330 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    37144 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with FCN1 (via Fibrinogen C-terminal domain).

neXtProt entry for FFAR2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for FFAR2 Gene

  • Glycosylation at posLast=151151 and Asn167
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for FFAR2 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for FFAR2 Gene

Domains & Families for FFAR2 Gene

Gene Families for FFAR2 Gene

HGNC:
IUPHAR :
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • G-protein coupled receptors
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for FFAR2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for FFAR2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

O15552

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

FFAR2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with FFAR2: view

Function for FFAR2 Gene

Molecular function for FFAR2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by a major product of dietary fiber digestion, the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and that plays a role in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis and in intestinal immunity. In omnivorous mammals, the short chain fatty acids acetate, propionate and butyrate are produced primarily by the gut microbiome that metabolizes dietary fibers. SCFAs serve as a source of energy but also act as signaling molecules. That G protein-coupled receptor is probably coupled to the pertussis toxin-sensitive, G(i/o)-alpha family of G proteins but also to the Gq family (PubMed:12496283, PubMed:12711604, PubMed:23589301). Its activation results in the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, the mobilization of intracellular calcium, the phosphorylation of the MAPK3/ERK1 and MAPK1/ERK2 kinases and the inhibition of intracellular cAMP accumulation. May play a role in glucose homeostasis by regulating the secretion of GLP-1, in response to short-chain fatty acids accumulating in the intestine. May also regulate the production of LEP/Leptin, a hormone acting on the central nervous system to inhibit food intake. Finally, may also regulate whole-body energy homeostasis through adipogenesis regulating both differentiation and lipid storage of adipocytes. In parallel to its role in energy homeostasis, may also mediate the activation of the inflammatory and immune responses by SCFA in the intestine, regulating the rapid production of chemokines and cytokines. May also play a role in the resolution of the inflammatory response and control chemotaxis in neutrophils. In addition to SCFAs, may also be activated by the extracellular lectin FCN1 in a process leading to activation of monocytes and inducing the secretion of interleukin-8/IL-8 in response to the presence of microbes (PubMed:21037097). Among SCFAs, the fatty acids containing less than 6 carbons, the most potent activators are probably acetate, propionate and butyrate (PubMed:12496283, PubMed:12711604). Exhibits a SCFA-independent constitutive G protein-coupled receptor activity (PubMed:23066016).

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for FFAR2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for FFAR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004871 signal transducer activity IEA --
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity IDA 12496283
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 21037097
GO:0008289 lipid binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FFAR2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with FFAR2: view

Animal Models for FFAR2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for FFAR2:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for FFAR2

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for FFAR2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for FFAR2 Gene

Localization for FFAR2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FFAR2 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for FFAR2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for FFAR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane TAS 9344866
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
GO:0042995 cell projection IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FFAR2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for FFAR2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for FFAR2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with FFAR2: view

Pathways by source for FFAR2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for FFAR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002232 leukocyte chemotaxis involved in inflammatory response ISS --
GO:0002376 immune system process IEA --
GO:0002385 mucosal immune response ISS --
GO:0002673 regulation of acute inflammatory response ISS --
GO:0002720 positive regulation of cytokine production involved in immune response ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FFAR2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for FFAR2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for FFAR2 Gene

(16) Drugs for FFAR2 Gene - From: ApexBio, DGIdb, IUPHAR, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
acetic acid Approved Nutra Full agonist, Agonist 116
calcium Approved Nutra 0
Butyric Acid Experimental, Investigational Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 408
isobutyric acid Experimental Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 0
propanoic acid Experimental Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 0

(6) Additional Compounds for FFAR2 Gene - From: IUPHAR and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
(S)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-N-(5-fluorothiazol-2-yl)-3-methylbutanamide
Full agonist, Agonist

(5) Tocris Compounds for FFAR2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
4-CMTB FFA2 agonist; also exhibits positive allosteric modulatory activity 300851-67-6
Grifolic acid Selective partial FFA4 (GPR120) agonist 80557-12-6
GW 9508 Potent and selective FFA1 (GPR40) agonist 885101-89-3
MEDICA 16 FFA1 (GPR40) agonist; also inhibits ATP citrate lyase 87272-20-6
TUG 891 Potent and selective FFA4 (GPR120) agonist 1374516-07-0

(3) ApexBio Compounds for FFAR2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
4-CMTB 300851-67-6
MEDICA 16 87272-20-6
TUG 424 1082058-99-8
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with FFAR2: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for FFAR2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for FFAR2 Gene

Free fatty acid receptor 2:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for FFAR2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for FFAR2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for FFAR2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
FFAR2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
FFAR2

Expression for FFAR2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for FFAR2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for FFAR2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x47.3).

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of FFAR2 Gene:

FFAR2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for FFAR2 Gene:

Hs.248056

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for FFAR2 Gene:

O15552-FFAR2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed at relatively high levels in peripheral blood leukocytes and, to lesser extent, in spleen.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for FFAR2 Gene

  • Intestine(2.6)
  • Blood(2.1)
  • Pancreas(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with FFAR2: view

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for FFAR2 Gene

Orthologs for FFAR2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for FFAR2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia FFAR2 33 34
  • 99.39 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia FFAR2 33 34
  • 83.49 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ffar2 33
  • 82.22 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ffar2 33 16 34
  • 81.82 (n)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia FFAR2 33
  • 81.36 (n)
GPR43 34
  • 77 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia FFAR2 34
  • 72 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia FFAR2 34
  • 66 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves LOC101749787 33
  • 63.33 (n)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia FFAR2 34
  • 43 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100486488 33
  • 60.22 (n)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii LOC100004095 33
  • 56.47 (n)
si:ch73-90p23.1 34
  • 49 (a)
ManyToMany
si:dkey-211g8.6 34
  • 44 (a)
ManyToMany
CU855821.1 34
  • 43 (a)
ManyToMany
CU855821.2 34
  • 40 (a)
ManyToMany
si:ch211-231m23.4 34
  • 37 (a)
ManyToMany
si:dkey-211g8.7 34
  • 33 (a)
ManyToMany
lpar5b 34
  • 19 (a)
ManyToMany
Species where no ortholog for FFAR2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for FFAR2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for FFAR2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for FFAR2 (if available)

Paralogs for FFAR2 Gene

Paralogs for FFAR2 Gene

(4) SIMAP similar genes for FFAR2 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for FFAR2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with FFAR2: view

Variants for FFAR2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for FFAR2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 19 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000252712 -- 35,448,122(+) A/G/T 5_prime_UTR_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000579386 -- 35,451,569(+) TGTTTGTTT/TGTTT 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs1000789099 -- 35,447,825(+) C/T upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001351260 -- 35,452,090(+) G/A downstream_transcript_variant
rs1001489637 -- 35,451,895(+) G/A downstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for FFAR2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv833810 CNV gain 17160897
nsv833811 CNV gain 17160897

Variation tolerance for FFAR2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 66.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.37; 63.45% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for FFAR2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
FFAR2

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FFAR2 Gene

Disorders for FFAR2 Gene

Additional Disease Information for FFAR2

No disorders were found for FFAR2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for FFAR2 Gene

Publications for FFAR2 Gene

  1. The Orphan G protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and GPR43 are activated by propionate and other short chain carboxylic acids. (PMID: 12496283) Brown AJ … Dowell SJ (The Journal of biological chemistry 2003) 3 4 22 58
  2. Identification of a free fatty acid receptor, FFA2R, expressed on leukocytes and activated by short-chain fatty acids. (PMID: 12684041) Nilsson NE … Olde B (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2003) 3 4 22 58
  3. Functional characterization of human receptors for short chain fatty acids and their role in polymorphonuclear cell activation. (PMID: 12711604) Le Poul E … Detheux M (The Journal of biological chemistry 2003) 3 4 22 58
  4. A cluster of four novel human G protein-coupled receptor genes occurring in close proximity to CD22 gene on chromosome 19q13.1. (PMID: 9344866) Sawzdargo M … O'Dowd BF (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1997) 2 3 4 58
  5. Defining the molecular basis for the first potent and selective orthosteric agonists of the FFA2 free fatty acid receptor. (PMID: 23589301) Hudson BD … Milligan G (The Journal of biological chemistry 2013) 3 4 58

Products for FFAR2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for FFAR2

Sources for FFAR2 Gene

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