Aliases for EZH2 Gene
External Ids for EZH2 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for EZH2 Gene
This gene encodes a member of the Polycomb-group (PcG) family. PcG family members form multimeric protein complexes, which are involved in maintaining the transcriptional repressive state of genes over successive cell generations. This protein associates with the embryonic ectoderm development protein, the VAV1 oncoprotein, and the X-linked nuclear protein. This protein may play a role in the hematopoietic and central nervous systems. Multiple alternatively splcied transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
GeneCards Summary for EZH2 Gene
EZH2 (Enhancer Of Zeste 2 Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Subunit) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with EZH2 include Weaver Syndrome and Cholangiolocellular Carcinoma. Among its related pathways are Cellular Senescence (REACTOME) and MicroRNAs in cancer. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include sequence-specific DNA binding and chromatin binding. An important paralog of this gene is EZH1.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for EZH2 Gene
Polycomb group (PcG) protein. Catalytic subunit of the PRC2/EED-EZH2 complex, which methylates Lys-9 (H3K9me) and Lys-27 (H3K27me) of histone H3, leading to transcriptional repression of the affected target gene. Able to mono-, di- and trimethylate Lys-27 of histone H3 to form H3K27me1, H3K27me2 and H3K27me3, respectively. Displays a preference for substrates with less methylation, loses activity when progressively more methyl groups are incorporated into H3K27, H3K27me0 > H3K27me1 > H3K27me2 (PubMed:22323599). Compared to EZH1-containing complexes, it is more abundant in embryonic stem cells and plays a major role in forming H3K27me3, which is required for embryonic stem cell identity and proper differentiation. The PRC2/EED-EZH2 complex may also serve as a recruiting platform for DNA methyltransferases, thereby linking two epigenetic repression systems. Genes repressed by the PRC2/EED-EZH2 complex include HOXC8, HOXA9, MYT1, CDKN2A and retinoic acid target genes. EZH2 can also methylate non-histone proteins such as the transcription factor GATA4 and the nuclear receptor RORA. Regulates the circadian clock via histone methylation at the promoter of the circadian genes. Essential for the CRY1/2-mediated repression of the transcriptional activation of PER1/2 by the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer; involved in the di and trimethylation of Lys-27 of histone H3 on PER1/2 promoters which is necessary for the CRY1/2 proteins to inhibit transcription.
Lysine methyltransferases are enyzmes that catalyze the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to the lysine residues on histones, particularly histones H3 and H4. The dysregulation of this methylation is critical in the development of cancer.