Aliases for ESR1 Gene
External Ids for ESR1 Gene
Previous HGNC Symbols for ESR1 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ESR1 Gene
This gene encodes an estrogen receptor, a ligand-activated transcription factor composed of several domains important for hormone binding, DNA binding, and activation of transcription. The protein localizes to the nucleus where it may form a homodimer or a heterodimer with estrogen receptor 2. Estrogen and its receptors are essential for sexual development and reproductive function, but also play a role in other tissues such as bone. Estrogen receptors are also involved in pathological processes including breast cancer, endometrial cancer, and osteoporosis. Alternative promoter usage and alternative splicing result in dozens of transcript variants, but the full-length nature of many of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]
ESR1 has been a focus in breast cancer for quite some time, but is also clinically relevant in endometrial, ovarian and other cancer types. The identification of ER-positive breast cancers that are resistant to hormone therapy have inspired clinical sequencing efforts to shed light on the mechanisms of this resistance. A number of mutations in the ligand binding domain of ESR1 have been implicated in hormone resistance and anti-estrogen therapies. These observations have spurred efforts to develop therapeutics that stimulate ESR1 protein degradation (e.g. Fulvestrant), rather than acting as a small molecule antagonist. These agents are currently in clinical trials and have seen some success.
GeneCards Summary for ESR1 Gene
ESR1 (Estrogen Receptor 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ESR1 include Estrogen Resistance and Breast Cancer. Among its related pathways are Ovarian tumor domain proteases and Proteoglycans in cancer. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include DNA-binding transcription factor activity and identical protein binding. An important paralog of this gene is ESR2.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for ESR1 Gene
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full-length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Estrogen controls many cellular processes including growth, differentiation and function of the reproductive system. Estrogen is also responsible for the growth and maintenance of the skeleton and the normal function of the cardiovascular and nervous systems.