Aliases for ERN1 Gene
External Ids for ERN1 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ERN1 Gene
This gene encodes the transmembrane protein kinase inositol-requiring enzyme 1. The encoded protein contains two functional catalytic domains, a serine/threonine-protein kinase domain and an endoribonuclease domain. This protein functions as a sensor of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and triggers an intracellular signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR is an ER stress response that is conserved from yeast to mammals and activates genes involved in degrading misfolded proteins, regulating protein synthesis and activating molecular chaperones. This protein specifically mediates the splicing and activation of the stress response transcription factor X-box binding protein 1. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2017]
GeneCards Summary for ERN1 Gene
ERN1 (Endoplasmic Reticulum To Nucleus Signaling 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ERN1 include Prion Disease and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Among its related pathways are Apoptosis Modulation and Signaling and Pathways of neurodegeneration - multiple diseases. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups. An important paralog of this gene is ERN2.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for ERN1 Gene
Serine/threonine-protein kinase and endoribonuclease that acts as a key sensor for the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response (UPR) (PubMed:11779464, PubMed:11175748, PubMed:12637535, PubMed:9637683, PubMed:21317875, PubMed:28128204). In unstressed cells, the endoplasmic reticulum luminal domain is maintained in its inactive monomeric state by binding to the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone HSPA5/BiP (PubMed:21317875). Accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum causes release of HSPA5/BiP, allowing the luminal domain to homodimerize, promoting autophosphorylation of the kinase domain and subsequent activation of the endoribonuclease activity (PubMed:21317875). The endoribonuclease activity is specific for XBP1 mRNA and excises 26 nucleotides from XBP1 mRNA (PubMed:11779464, PubMed:24508390, PubMed:21317875). The resulting spliced transcript of XBP1 encodes a transcriptional activator protein that up-regulates expression of UPR target genes (PubMed:11779464, PubMed:24508390, PubMed:21317875). Acts as an upstream signal for ER stress-induced GORASP2-mediated unconventional (ER/Golgi-independent) trafficking of CFTR to cell membrane by modulating the expression and localization of SEC16A (PubMed:21884936, PubMed:28067262).
Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) is a resident transmembrane ER protein with both kinase and endonuclease domains. Both yeast (IRE) and mammalian (IRE1alpha) homologs are involved in the degradation of misfolded proteins, as part of the unfolded protein response (UPR).