Aliases for EPHA4 Gene
External Ids for EPHA4 Gene
Previous HGNC Symbols for EPHA4 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for EPHA4 Gene
This gene belongs to the ephrin receptor subfamily of the protein-tyrosine kinase family. EPH and EPH-related receptors have been implicated in mediating developmental events, particularly in the nervous system. Receptors in the EPH subfamily typically have a single kinase domain and an extracellular region containing a Cys-rich domain and 2 fibronectin type III repeats. The ephrin receptors are divided into 2 groups based on the similarity of their extracellular domain sequences and their affinities for binding ephrin-A and ephrin-B ligands. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]
GeneCards Summary for EPHA4 Gene
EPHA4 (EPH Receptor A4) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with EPHA4 include Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 1 and Duane Retraction Syndrome. Among its related pathways are ERK Signaling and Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and protein kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is EPHA5.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for EPHA4 Gene
Receptor tyrosine kinase which binds membrane-bound ephrin family ligands residing on adjacent cells, leading to contact-dependent bidirectional signaling into neighboring cells. The signaling pathway downstream of the receptor is referred to as forward signaling while the signaling pathway downstream of the ephrin ligand is referred to as reverse signaling. Highly promiscuous, it has the unique property among Eph receptors to bind and to be physiologically activated by both GPI-anchored ephrin-A and transmembrane ephrin-B ligands including EFNA1 and EFNB3. Upon activation by ephrin ligands, modulates cell morphology and integrin-dependent cell adhesion through regulation of the Rac, Rap and Rho GTPases activity. Plays an important role in the development of the nervous system controlling different steps of axonal guidance including the establishment of the corticospinal projections. May also control the segregation of motor and sensory axons during neuromuscular circuit development. In addition to its role in axonal guidance plays a role in synaptic plasticity. Activated by EFNA1 phosphorylates CDK5 at 'Tyr-15' which in turn phosphorylates NGEF regulating RHOA and dendritic spine morphogenesis. In the nervous system, plays also a role in repair after injury preventing axonal regeneration and in angiogenesis playing a role in central nervous system vascular formation. Additionally, its promiscuity makes it available to participate in a variety of cell-cell signaling regulating for instance the development of the thymic epithelium. During development of the cochlear organ of Corti, regulates pillar cell separation by forming a ternary complex with ADAM10 and CADH1 which facilitates the cleavage of CADH1 by ADAM10 and disruption of adherens junctions (By similarity).
Eph receptors are the largest family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and are divided into two subclasses, EphA and EphB. Originally identified as mediators of axon guidance, Eph receptors are implicated in many processes, particularly cancer development and progression.