Aliases for ENPP1 Gene
External Ids for ENPP1 Gene
Previous HGNC Symbols for ENPP1 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ENPP1 Gene
This gene is a member of the ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (ENPP) family. The encoded protein is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein comprising two identical disulfide-bonded subunits. This protein has broad specificity and cleaves a variety of substrates, including phosphodiester bonds of nucleotides and nucleotide sugars and pyrophosphate bonds of nucleotides and nucleotide sugars. This protein may function to hydrolyze nucleoside 5' triphosphates to their corresponding monophosphates and may also hydrolyze diadenosine polyphosphates. Mutations in this gene have been associated with 'idiopathic' infantile arterial calcification, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine (OPLL), and insulin resistance. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GeneCards Summary for ENPP1 Gene
ENPP1 (Ectonucleotide Pyrophosphatase/Phosphodiesterase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ENPP1 include Cole Disease and Hypophosphatemic Rickets, Autosomal Recessive, 2. Among its related pathways are Metabolism of water-soluble vitamins and cofactors and NAD metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include nucleic acid binding and protein homodimerization activity. An important paralog of this gene is ENPP3.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for ENPP1 Gene
Nucleotide pyrophosphatase that generates diphosphate (PPi) and functions in bone mineralization and soft tissue calcification by regulating pyrophosphate levels (By similarity). PPi inhibits bone mineralization and soft tissue calcification by binding to nascent hydroxyapatite crystals, thereby preventing further growth of these crystals (PubMed:11004006). Preferentially hydrolyzes ATP, but can also hydrolyze other nucleoside 5' triphosphates such as GTP, CTP, TTP and UTP to their corresponding monophosphates with release of pyrophosphate and diadenosine polyphosphates, and also 3',5'-cAMP to AMP (PubMed:27467858, PubMed:8001561, PubMed:25344812). May also be involved in the regulation of the availability of nucleotide sugars in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi, and the regulation of purinergic signaling (PubMed:27467858, PubMed:8001561). Inhibits ectopic joint calcification and maintains articular chondrocytes by repressing hedgehog signaling; it is however unclear whether hedgehog inhibition is direct or indirect (By similarity). Appears to modulate insulin sensitivity and function (PubMed:10615944). Also involved in melanogenesis (PubMed:28964717). Also able to hydrolyze 2'-3'-cGAMP (cyclic GMP-AMP), a second messenger that activates TMEM173/STING and triggers type-I interferon production (PubMed:25344812). 2'-3'-cGAMP degradation takes place in the lumen or extracellular space, and not in the cytosol where it is produced; the role of 2'-3'-cGAMP hydrolysis is therefore unclear (PubMed:25344812). Not able to hydrolyze the 2'-3'-cGAMP linkage isomer 3'-3'-cGAMP (PubMed:25344812).