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Aliases for ENO2 Gene

Aliases for ENO2 Gene

  • Enolase 2 2 3 4 5
  • Gamma-Enolase 2 3 4
  • 2-Phospho-D-Glycerate Hydro-Lyase 3 4
  • Enolase 2 (Gamma, Neuronal) 2 3
  • Neuronal Enriched Enolase 2 3
  • Neuron-Specific Enolase 3 4
  • Neural Enolase 3 4
  • EC 4 56
  • NSE 3 4
  • Epididymis Secretory Protein Li 279 3
  • 2-Phospho-D-Glycerate Hydrolyase 3
  • Neuron Specific Gamma Enolase 3
  • Neurone-Specific Enolase 3
  • HEL-S-279 3

External Ids for ENO2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ENO2 Gene

  • GC12M006942
  • GC12M007028
  • GC12P006902
  • GC12P006894
  • GC12P006897
  • GC12P006898
  • GC12P007023
  • GC12P007037
  • GC12P007067
  • GC12P007116
  • GC12P007149

Summaries for ENO2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ENO2 Gene

  • This gene encodes one of the three enolase isoenzymes found in mammals. This isoenzyme, a homodimer, is found in mature neurons and cells of neuronal origin. A switch from alpha enolase to gamma enolase occurs in neural tissue during development in rats and primates. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for ENO2 Gene

ENO2 (Enolase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ENO2 include Granular Cell Tumor and Small Cell Carcinoma. Among its related pathways are Glucose metabolism and Neuroscience. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include magnesium ion binding and phosphopyruvate hydratase activity. An important paralog of this gene is ENO3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ENO2 Gene

  • Has neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties on a broad spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) neurons. Binds, in a calcium-dependent manner, to cultured neocortical neurons and promotes cell survival (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for ENO2 Gene

Additional gene information for ENO2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ENO2 Gene

Genomics for ENO2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for ENO2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for ENO2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH12J006913 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 600.7 +1.2 1156 2.6 NKRF ZNF687 TFE3 SP7 SP5 MLLT1 ZNF384 MZF1 EGR1 KAT8 LRRC23 ENO2 ENSG00000247853 SPSB2 NCAPD2 ZNF384 ENSG00000219410 C1RL ATN1
GH12J006912 Enhancer 0.5 Ensembl dbSUPER 600.7 -1.2 -1244 0.2 ZNF121 ENO2 LRRC23 C12orf57 RNU7-1 SPSB2 RPL13P5 TPI1 USP5 PTPN6 MIR141
GH12J006459 Promoter/Enhancer 1.6 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.8 -451.6 -451601 6.3 SP1 NKRF ZNF687 RELA CREM MLLT1 ZNF680 ZNF560 IKZF1 POLR2A ZNF384 ENSG00000219410 CHD4 ENSG00000247853 TAPBPL MRPL51 NOP2 SCARNA12 VAMP1 EMG1
GH12J006197 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 5.2 -710.7 -710743 11 ZNF652 ELF3 NKRF ZNF121 ZNF687 POLR2A PRDM1 MLLT1 GLIS2 ZBTB8A CD9 ENO2 ING4 ENSG00000202318 GC12M006235
GH12J006839 Promoter/Enhancer 1.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 6.7 -73.0 -73040 2.6 CBFA2T2 GLIS2 POLR2A EZH2 NCOR1 TCF12 VEZF1 TAL1 ZNF398 TEAD4 GNB3 GC12M006839 SPSB2 ENO2 TPI1 GC12P006844 P3H3
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around ENO2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the ENO2 gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • ATF-2
  • GR
  • GR-alpha
  • GR-beta
  • p53
  • STAT3

Genomic Locations for ENO2 Gene

Genomic Locations for ENO2 Gene
9,954 bases
Plus strand
9,953 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for ENO2 Gene

Genes around ENO2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ENO2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ENO2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ENO2 Gene

Proteins for ENO2 Gene

  • Protein details for ENO2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B7Z2X9
    • Q96J33

    Protein attributes for ENO2 Gene

    434 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    47269 Da
    Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Mammalian enolase is composed of 3 isozyme subunits, alpha, beta and gamma, which can form homodimers or heterodimers which are cell-type and development-specific.
    • Sequence=AAA52388.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ENO2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for ENO2 Gene


neXtProt entry for ENO2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for ENO2 Gene


Post-translational modifications for ENO2 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at isoforms=2343 and posLast=120120
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

  • Abcam antibodies for ENO2

Domains & Families for ENO2 Gene

Gene Families for ENO2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Candidate cardiovascular disease genes
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for ENO2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ENO2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Enolase (B7Z2X9_HUMAN)
  • Neuron-specific enolase (ENOG_HUMAN)
  • Enolase (F5H0C8_HUMAN)
  • Enolase (Q6FHV6_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the enolase family.
  • Belongs to the enolase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ENO2: view

Function for ENO2 Gene

Molecular function for ENO2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Has neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties on a broad spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) neurons. Binds, in a calcium-dependent manner, to cultured neocortical neurons and promotes cell survival (By similarity).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=(2R)-2-phosphoglycerate = H2O + phosphoenolpyruvate; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:10164, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:58289, ChEBI:CHEBI:58702; EC=;.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Levels of ENO2 increase dramatically in cardiovascular accidents, cerebral trauma, brain tumors and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
enolase 2,gamma subunit,neuronal (2-phospho-D-glycerate hydrolase),glycolysis,energy pathway

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ENO2 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for ENO2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ENO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000287 magnesium ion binding IEA --
GO:0004634 phosphopyruvate hydratase activity ISS,TAS 22087329
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 21044950
GO:0016829 lyase activity IEA --
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ENO2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ENO2: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for ENO2

CRISPR Products

miRNA for ENO2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ENO2

Clone Products

  • Applied Biological Materials (abm): Clones for ENO2 - Now 50% OFF >
  • * ENO2 as ready-to-use vector or virus: ORF | Lenti- | Retro- | Adeno- | AAV- | Protein Vector - Browse All
  • * ENO2 tags and reporters available: His, HA, Myc, Flag, GFP, RFP, Luciferase - Browse All
  • Addgene plasmids for ENO2

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ENO2 Gene

Localization for ENO2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ENO2 Gene

Cytoplasm. Cell membrane. Note=Can translocate to the plasma membrane in either the homodimeric (alpha/alpha) or heterodimeric (alpha/gamma) form. {ECO:0000250}.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ENO2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
plasma membrane 4
cytoskeleton 3
nucleus 3
extracellular 2
mitochondrion 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (3)
  • Plasma membrane (3)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ENO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000015 phosphopyruvate hydratase complex IEA --
GO:0001917 photoreceptor inner segment IEA --
GO:0005615 extracellular space HDA 22664934
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ENO2: view

Pathways & Interactions for ENO2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ENO2: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P09104-ENOG_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Carbohydrate degradation; glycolysis; pyruvate from D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate: step 4/5.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ENO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006094 gluconeogenesis TAS --
GO:0006096 glycolytic process ISS 22087329
GO:0061621 canonical glycolysis TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ENO2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ENO2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ENO2 Gene

(55) Drugs for ENO2 Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Magnesium Approved, Experimental, Investigational Pharma 0
Calcium Approved Nutra 7611
Water Approved Pharma 0
phosphoenolpyruvate Experimental Pharma 0
Phosphoglycolic acid Experimental Pharma Target 0

(49) Additional Compounds for ENO2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 5-Dehydroquinic acid
  • 5-Dehydroquinate
  • 3-Dehydroquinic acid
  • Cyclohexan-1,4,5-triol-3-one-1-carboxylic acid

(1) ApexBio Compounds for ENO2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
AP-III-a4 1177827-73-4
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ENO2: view

Transcripts for ENO2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for ENO2 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(13) Additional mRNA sequences :
(11) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(14) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for ENO2 Gene

Enolase 2 (gamma, neuronal):
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

  • Applied Biological Materials (abm): Clones for ENO2 - Now 50% OFF >
  • * ENO2 as ready-to-use vector or virus: ORF | Lenti- | Retro- | Adeno- | AAV- | Protein Vector - Browse All
  • * ENO2 tags and reporters available: His, HA, Myc, Flag, GFP, RFP, Luciferase - Browse All
  • Addgene plasmids for ENO2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ENO2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d · 2e ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c · 4d ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12a ·
SP1: - - - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - -
SP8: - - -
SP9: - - -
SP10: - - -
SP13: - -

ExUns: 12b

Relevant External Links for ENO2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ENO2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for ENO2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ENO2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Cerebellar Hemisphere (x6.0), Brain - Cerebellum (x5.5), Brain - Frontal Cortex (BA9) (x4.6), and Brain - Cortex (x4.3).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ENO2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Retina (17.2), Brain (13.9), and Saliva (6.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for ENO2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for ENO2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ENO2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ENO2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ENO2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: The alpha/alpha homodimer is expressed in embryo and in most adult tissues. The alpha/beta heterodimer and the beta/beta homodimer are found in striated muscle, and the alpha/gamma heterodimer and the gamma/gamma homodimer in neurons.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ENO2 Gene

  • Nervous system(5)
  • Eye(4.9)
  • Blood(4.6)
  • Liver(4.5)
  • Kidney(4.1)
  • Lung(3.4)
  • Adrenal gland(2.9)
  • Intestine(2.9)
  • Lymph node(2.9)
  • Muscle(2.9)
  • Pancreas(2.9)
  • Skin(2.7)
  • Thyroid gland(2.7)
  • Stomach(2.5)
  • Gall bladder(2.3)
  • Heart(2.3)
  • Bone marrow(2.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ENO2: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ENO2 Gene

Orthologs for ENO2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for ENO2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ENO2 35 34
  • 93.78 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ENO2 35 34
  • 92.78 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Eno2 17 35 34
  • 91.71 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia LOC100911625 34
  • 91.4 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ENO2 35
  • 91 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ENO2 35
  • 73 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ENO2 35 34
  • 80.11 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ENO2 35
  • 93 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii eno2 35 34
  • 74.73 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Eno 35 36
  • 63 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea enol-1 35
  • 69 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AER294C 34
  • 62.6 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0A09185g 34
  • 60.7 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes ENO1 35 34
  • 60.31 (n)
ENO2 35
  • 60 (a)
ERR2 35
  • 59 (a)
ERR1 35
  • 59 (a)
ERR3 35
  • 59 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.10219 35
  • 71 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU10042 34
  • 63.17 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes eno101 34
  • 61.33 (n)
Species where no ortholog for ENO2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for ENO2 Gene

Gene Tree for ENO2 (if available)
Gene Tree for ENO2 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for ENO2: view image

Paralogs for ENO2 Gene

Paralogs for ENO2 Gene

(4) SIMAP similar genes for ENO2 Gene using alignment to 7 proteins:

  • B7Z2X9_HUMAN
  • F5H0C8_HUMAN
  • F5H1C3_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ENO2: view

Variants for ENO2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ENO2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000634103 -- 6,916,457(+) C/T coding_sequence_variant, synonymous_variant
rs1001276024 -- 6,923,220(+) C/T 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs1001391324 -- 6,916,164(+) A/C intron_variant
rs1002345369 -- 6,923,375(+) T/C 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs1002861692 -- 6,919,881(+) G/A intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ENO2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1035811 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1047373 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1129363 OTHER inversion 24896259
nsv509453 CNV insertion 20534489
nsv557261 CNV loss 21841781
nsv832324 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for ENO2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 14.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.56; 12.09% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for ENO2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ENO2 Gene

Disorders for ENO2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(258) MalaCards diseases for ENO2 Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
granular cell tumor
  • neoplasm of granular cell
small cell carcinoma
  • intermediate cell small cell carcinoma
melanotic neuroectodermal tumor
  • infantile melanotic neuroectodermal neoplasm
askin's tumor
  • askin tumor
ossifying fibromyxoid tumor
  • ossifying fibromyxoma
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ENO2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for ENO2

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ENO2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ENO2 Gene

Publications for ENO2 Gene

  1. The estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia implicates glucose metabolism: association study in three independent samples. (PMID: 18460190) Olsen L … Werge T (BMC medical genetics 2008) 3 23 45 58
  2. Serum concentrations of s100b and NSE in migraine. (PMID: 18783450) Teepker M … Schepelmann K (Headache 2009) 3 23 58
  3. Transcriptomic and genetic studies identify IL-33 as a candidate gene for Alzheimer's disease. (PMID: 19204726) Chapuis J … Lambert JC (Molecular psychiatry 2009) 3 45 58
  4. [Changes in plasma S-100 beta and neuron-specific enolase in peri-operative period of orthotopic liver transplantation and its relationship with encephalopathy after operation]. (PMID: 19220958) Sun HY … Li SR (Zhongguo wei zhong bing ji jiu yi xue = Chinese critical care medicine = Zhongguo weizhongbing jijiuyixue 2009) 3 23 58
  5. Genetic variants in apoptosis and immunoregulation-related genes are associated with risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (PMID: 19074885) Enjuanes A … Campo E (Cancer research 2008) 3 45 58

Products for ENO2 Gene

Sources for ENO2 Gene

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