The protein encoded by this gene is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is activated by autophosphorylation after binding to dsRNA. The activated form of the encoded protein can phosphorylate translation initiation factor EIF2S1, which in turn inhibits protein synthesis. This protein is also activated by manganese ions and heparin. Three transcript variants encoding two diff... See more...

Aliases for EIF2AK2 Gene

Aliases for EIF2AK2 Gene

  • Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 2 Alpha Kinase 2 2 3 5
  • PKR 2 3 4
  • Protein Kinase, Interferon-Inducible Double Stranded RNA Dependent 2 3
  • Interferon-Induced, Double-Stranded RNA-Activated Protein Kinase 3 4
  • Protein Phosphatase 1, Regulatory Subunit 83 2 3
  • Tyrosine-Protein Kinase EIF2AK2 3 4
  • P1/EIF-2A Protein Kinase 3 4
  • EIF-2A Protein Kinase 2 3 4
  • Protein Kinase R 3 4
  • P68 Kinase 3 4
  • EIF2AK1 2 3
  • PPP1R83 2 3
  • PRKR 3 4
  • Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 2-Alpha Kinase 2 4
  • Interferon-Inducible RNA-Dependent Protein Kinase 4
  • Double Stranded RNA Activated Protein Kinase 3
  • Interferon-Inducible ElF2alpha Kinase 3
  • Protein Kinase RNA-Activated 4
  • EC 2.7.11.1 4
  • EC 2.7.10.2 4
  • EIF2AK2 5
  • LEUDEN 3

External Ids for EIF2AK2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for EIF2AK2 Gene

  • PRKR

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for EIF2AK2 Gene

  • GC02M037246
  • GC02M037073
  • GC02M037326

Summaries for EIF2AK2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for EIF2AK2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is activated by autophosphorylation after binding to dsRNA. The activated form of the encoded protein can phosphorylate translation initiation factor EIF2S1, which in turn inhibits protein synthesis. This protein is also activated by manganese ions and heparin. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

GeneCards Summary for EIF2AK2 Gene

EIF2AK2 (Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 2 Alpha Kinase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with EIF2AK2 include Leukoencephalopathy, Developmental Delay, And Episodic Neurologic Regression Syndrome and Herpes Simplex. Among its related pathways are NF-KappaB Family Pathway and Interferon gamma signaling. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is EIF2AK3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for EIF2AK2 Gene

  • IFN-induced dsRNA-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that phosphorylates the alpha subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (EIF2S1/eIF-2-alpha) and plays a key role in the innate immune response to viral infection (PubMed:18835251, PubMed:19507191, PubMed:19189853, PubMed:21123651, PubMed:21072047, PubMed:22948139, PubMed:23229543, PubMed:22381929). Inhibits viral replication via the integrated stress response (ISR): EIF2S1/eIF-2-alpha phosphorylation in response to viral infection converts EIF2S1/eIF-2-alpha in a global protein synthesis inhibitor, resulting to a shutdown of cellular and viral protein synthesis, while concomitantly initiating the preferential translation of ISR-specific mRNAs, such as the transcriptional activator ATF4 (PubMed:19189853, PubMed:21123651, PubMed:22948139, PubMed:23229543). Exerts its antiviral activity on a wide range of DNA and RNA viruses including hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), measles virus (MV) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HHV-1) (PubMed:11836380, PubMed:19189853, PubMed:20171114, PubMed:19840259, PubMed:21710204, PubMed:23115276, PubMed:23399035). Also involved in the regulation of signal transduction, apoptosis, cell proliferation and differentiation: phosphorylates other substrates including p53/TP53, PPP2R5A, DHX9, ILF3, IRS1 and the HHV-1 viral protein US11 (PubMed:11836380, PubMed:22214662, PubMed:19229320). In addition to serine/threonine-protein kinase activity, also has tyrosine-protein kinase activity and phosphorylates CDK1 at 'Tyr-4' upon DNA damage, facilitating its ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation (PubMed:20395957). Either as an adapter protein and/or via its kinase activity, can regulate various signaling pathways (p38 MAP kinase, NF-kappa-B and insulin signaling pathways) and transcription factors (JUN, STAT1, STAT3, IRF1, ATF3) involved in the expression of genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines and IFNs (PubMed:22948139, PubMed:23084476, PubMed:23372823). Activates the NF-kappa-B pathway via interaction with IKBKB and TRAF family of proteins and activates the p38 MAP kinase pathway via interaction with MAP2K6 (PubMed:10848580, PubMed:15121867, PubMed:15229216). Can act as both a positive and negative regulator of the insulin signaling pathway (ISP) (PubMed:20685959). Negatively regulates ISP by inducing the inhibitory phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) at 'Ser-312' and positively regulates ISP via phosphorylation of PPP2R5A which activates FOXO1, which in turn up-regulates the expression of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) (PubMed:20685959). Can regulate NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and the activation of NLRP3, NLRP1, AIM2 and NLRC4 inflammasomes (PubMed:22801494). Plays a role in the regulation of the cytoskeleton by binding to gelsolin (GSN), sequestering the protein in an inactive conformation away from actin (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for EIF2AK2 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for EIF2AK2 Gene

Genomics for EIF2AK2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for EIF2AK2 Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around EIF2AK2 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for EIF2AK2

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the EIF2AK2 gene promoter:
  • AML1a

Genomic Locations for EIF2AK2 Gene

Genomic Locations for EIF2AK2 Gene
chr2:37,099,210-37,157,065
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
57,856 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr2:37,326,353-37,384,208
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
57,856 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for EIF2AK2 Gene

Genes around EIF2AK2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
EIF2AK2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for EIF2AK2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for EIF2AK2 Gene

Proteins for EIF2AK2 Gene

  • Protein details for EIF2AK2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P19525-E2AK2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase
    Protein Accession:
    P19525
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K3P0
    • D6W584
    • E9PC80
    • Q52M43
    • Q7Z6F6
    • Q9UIR4

    Protein attributes for EIF2AK2 Gene

    Size:
    551 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    62094 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer. Interacts with STRBP (By similarity). Interacts with DNAJC3. Forms a complex with FANCA, FANCC, FANCG and HSP70. Interacts with ADAR/ADAR1. Interacts with IRS1 (By similarity). The inactive form interacts with NCK1 and GSN. Interacts (via the kinase catalytic domain) with STAT3 (via SH2 domain), TRAF2 (C-terminus), TRAF5 (C-terminus) and TRAF6 (C-terminus). Interacts with MAP2K6, IKBKB/IKKB, NPM1, TARBP2, NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4 and AIM2. Interacts (via DRBM 1 domain) with DUS2L (via DRBM domain). Interacts with DHX9 (via N-terminus) and this interaction is dependent upon activation of the kinase.
    • (Microbial infection) Interacts with human herpes simplex virus 1 (HHV-1) protein US11 in an RNA-dependent manner.
    • (Microbial infection) The inactive form interacts with Toscana virus (TOS) NSS.
    • (Microbial infection) Interacts with herpes virus 8 protein v-IRF2; this interaction inhibits EIF2AK2 activation.
    • (Microbial infection) Interacts with vaccinia protein E3.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for EIF2AK2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for EIF2AK2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for EIF2AK2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for EIF2AK2 Gene

  • Autophosphorylated on several Ser, Thr and Tyr residues. Autophosphorylation of Thr-451 is dependent on Thr-446 and is stimulated by dsRNA binding and dimerization. Autophosphorylation apparently leads to the activation of the kinase. Tyrosine autophosphorylation is essential for efficient dsRNA-binding, dimerization, and kinase activation.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Antibody Products

  • Abcam antibodies for EIF2AK2

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for EIF2AK2 Gene

Domains & Families for EIF2AK2 Gene

Gene Families for EIF2AK2 Gene

Protein Domains for EIF2AK2 Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • Double-stranded RNA binding (DsRBD) domain
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for EIF2AK2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • EIF2AK2 protein (B7ZKK7_HUMAN)
  • p68 kinase (E2AK2_HUMAN)
  • EIF2AK2 protein (Q6PK38_HUMAN)
  • EIF2AK2 protein (Q8IW76_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P19525

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

E2AK2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Ser/Thr protein kinase family. GCN2 subfamily.
Family:
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Ser/Thr protein kinase family. GCN2 subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with EIF2AK2: view

Function for EIF2AK2 Gene

Molecular function for EIF2AK2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
IFN-induced dsRNA-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that phosphorylates the alpha subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (EIF2S1/eIF-2-alpha) and plays a key role in the innate immune response to viral infection (PubMed:18835251, PubMed:19507191, PubMed:19189853, PubMed:21123651, PubMed:21072047, PubMed:22948139, PubMed:23229543, PubMed:22381929). Inhibits viral replication via the integrated stress response (ISR): EIF2S1/eIF-2-alpha phosphorylation in response to viral infection converts EIF2S1/eIF-2-alpha in a global protein synthesis inhibitor, resulting to a shutdown of cellular and viral protein synthesis, while concomitantly initiating the preferential translation of ISR-specific mRNAs, such as the transcriptional activator ATF4 (PubMed:19189853, PubMed:21123651, PubMed:22948139, PubMed:23229543). Exerts its antiviral activity on a wide range of DNA and RNA viruses including hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), measles virus (MV) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HHV-1) (PubMed:11836380, PubMed:19189853, PubMed:20171114, PubMed:19840259, PubMed:21710204, PubMed:23115276, PubMed:23399035). Also involved in the regulation of signal transduction, apoptosis, cell proliferation and differentiation: phosphorylates other substrates including p53/TP53, PPP2R5A, DHX9, ILF3, IRS1 and the HHV-1 viral protein US11 (PubMed:11836380, PubMed:22214662, PubMed:19229320). In addition to serine/threonine-protein kinase activity, also has tyrosine-protein kinase activity and phosphorylates CDK1 at 'Tyr-4' upon DNA damage, facilitating its ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation (PubMed:20395957). Either as an adapter protein and/or via its kinase activity, can regulate various signaling pathways (p38 MAP kinase, NF-kappa-B and insulin signaling pathways) and transcription factors (JUN, STAT1, STAT3, IRF1, ATF3) involved in the expression of genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines and IFNs (PubMed:22948139, PubMed:23084476, PubMed:23372823). Activates the NF-kappa-B pathway via interaction with IKBKB and TRAF family of proteins and activates the p38 MAP kinase pathway via interaction with MAP2K6 (PubMed:10848580, PubMed:15121867, PubMed:15229216). Can act as both a positive and negative regulator of the insulin signaling pathway (ISP) (PubMed:20685959). Negatively regulates ISP by inducing the inhibitory phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) at 'Ser-312' and positively regulates ISP via phosphorylation of PPP2R5A which activates FOXO1, which in turn up-regulates the expression of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) (PubMed:20685959). Can regulate NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and the activation of NLRP3, NLRP1, AIM2 and NLRC4 inflammasomes (PubMed:22801494). Plays a role in the regulation of the cytoskeleton by binding to gelsolin (GSN), sequestering the protein in an inactive conformation away from actin (By similarity).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=ATP + L-seryl-[protein] = ADP + H(+) + O-phospho-L-seryl-[protein]; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:17989, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:9863, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:11604, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:29999, ChEBI:CHEBI:30616, ChEBI:CHEBI:83421, ChEBI:CHEBI:456216; EC=2.7.11.1;.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=ATP + L-threonyl-[protein] = ADP + H(+) + O-phospho-L-threonyl-[protein]; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:46608, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:11060, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:11605, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:30013, ChEBI:CHEBI:30616, ChEBI:CHEBI:61977, ChEBI:CHEBI:456216; EC=2.7.11.1;.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=ATP + L-tyrosyl-[protein] = ADP + H(+) + O-phospho-L-tyrosyl-[protein]; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:10596, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:10136, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:10137, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:30616, ChEBI:CHEBI:46858, ChEBI:CHEBI:82620, ChEBI:CHEBI:456216; EC=2.7.10.2; Evidence={ECO:0000255|PROSITE-ProRule:PRU10027};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
By type I interferons.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Initially produced in an inactive form and is activated by binding to viral dsRNA, which causes dimerization and autophosphorylation in the activation loop and stimulation of function. ISGylation can activate it in the absence of viral infection. Can also be activated by heparin, proinflammatory stimuli, growth factors, cytokines, oxidative stress and the cellular protein PRKRA. Activity is markedly stimulated by manganese ions. Activation is blocked by the viral components HIV-1 Tat protein and large amounts of HIV-1 trans-activation response (TAR) RNA element as well as by the cellular proteins TARBP2, DUS2L, NPM1, NCK1 and ADAR. Down-regulated by Toscana virus (TOS) and Rift valley fever virus (RVFV) NSS which promote its proteasomal degradation. Inhibited by vaccinia virus protein E3, probably via dsRNA sequestering.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for EIF2AK2 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for EIF2AK2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for EIF2AK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding IEA --
GO:0003723 RNA binding IEA,HDA 22681889
GO:0003725 double-stranded RNA binding TAS,IDA 21266579
GO:0004672 protein kinase activity IBA,IMP 21123651
GO:0004674 protein serine/threonine kinase activity TAS 1695551
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with EIF2AK2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with EIF2AK2: view

Animal Models for EIF2AK2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for EIF2AK2:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for EIF2AK2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target EIF2AK2

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for EIF2AK2

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for EIF2AK2 Gene

Localization for EIF2AK2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for EIF2AK2 Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Cytoplasm, perinuclear region. Note=Nuclear localization is elevated in acute leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), melanoma, breast, colon, prostate and lung cancer patient samples or cell lines as well as neurocytes from advanced Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:21072047}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for EIF2AK2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
nucleus 4
plasma membrane 2
extracellular 2
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
endosome 2
lysosome 2
peroxisome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for EIF2AK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA,IDA 15121867
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005840 ribosome TAS 10390359
GO:0016020 membrane HDA 19946888
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with EIF2AK2: view

Pathways & Interactions for EIF2AK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with EIF2AK2: view

Pathways by source for EIF2AK2 Gene

3 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathways for EIF2AK2 Gene
  • Development PDGF signaling via STATs and NF-kB
  • Immune response IFN gamma signaling pathway
  • Translation Regulation of EIF2 activity
5 Qiagen pathways for EIF2AK2 Gene
  • Activation of NF-KappaB by PKR
  • eIF2 Pathway
  • NF-kappaB Activation by Viruses
  • NF-KappaB Family Pathway
  • PKR Pathway
1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for EIF2AK2 Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for EIF2AK2 Gene

Activates:
Inactivates:
Is activated by:
Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for EIF2AK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000186 activation of MAPKK activity IMP 15229216
GO:0001819 positive regulation of cytokine production ISS --
GO:0002376 immune system process IEA --
GO:0006412 translation IEA --
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation IDA 19189853
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with EIF2AK2: view

Drugs & Compounds for EIF2AK2 Gene

(28) Drugs for EIF2AK2 Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
fostamatinib Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, inhibitor Kinase Inhibitors 0
Manganese Approved Nutra 56
ATP Investigational Nutra Agonist, Activator, Partial agonist, Antagonist, Full agonist, Gating inhibitor, Pore Blocker, Potentiation 0
CDK2 INHIBITOR IV Pharma 0
INDIRUBIN DERIVATIVE E804 Pharma 0

(17) Additional Compounds for EIF2AK2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
ADP
  • 5'-Adenylphosphoric acid
  • Adenosine 5'-diphosphate
  • ADENOSINE-5'-diphosphATE
  • H3ADP
  • 5'-Adenylphosphate
Agonist, Full agonist, Partial agonist, Gating inhibitor, Antagonist 58-64-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with EIF2AK2: view

Transcripts for EIF2AK2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for EIF2AK2 Gene

3 REFSEQ mRNAs :
18 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
8 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for EIF2AK2

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for EIF2AK2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for EIF2AK2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
EIF2AK2

Expression for EIF2AK2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for EIF2AK2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for EIF2AK2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x4.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for EIF2AK2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for EIF2AK2 Gene

- Elite partner

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for EIF2AK2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for EIF2AK2 Gene:

Hs.131431

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for EIF2AK2 Gene:

P19525-E2AK2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in thymus, spleen and bone marrow compared to non-hematopoietic tissues such as small intestine, liver, or kidney tissues. Colocalizes with GSK3B and TAU in the Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. Elevated levels seen in breast and colon carcinomas, and which correlates with tumor progression and invasiveness or risk of progression.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for EIF2AK2 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.5)
  • Liver(4.5)
  • Spleen(2.7)
  • Kidney(2.5)
  • Blood(2.5)
  • Heart(2.4)
  • Lung(2.4)
  • Muscle(2.3)
  • Lymph node(2.3)
  • Bone marrow(2.2)
  • Intestine(2)
  • Skin(2)
  • Pancreas(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with EIF2AK2: view

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for EIF2AK2 Gene

Orthologs for EIF2AK2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for EIF2AK2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia EIF2AK2 30 31
  • 99.21 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia EIF2AK2 30 31
  • 77.57 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia EIF2AK2 30 31
  • 76.95 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Eif2ak2 30
  • 73.1 (n)
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Eif2ak2 30 17 31
  • 70.83 (n)
OneToOne
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia EIF2AK2 31
  • 45 (a)
OneToOne
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia EIF2AK2 31
  • 43 (a)
OneToOne
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves EIF2AK2 30 31
  • 53.43 (n)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia EIF2AK2 31
  • 39 (a)
OneToOne
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia eif2ak2 30
  • 51.87 (n)
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii eif2ak2 30 31
  • 49.6 (n)
OneToMany
pkz 31
  • 28 (a)
OneToMany
Worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea gcn-2 31
  • 8 (a)
ManyToMany
Baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes GCN2 31
  • 7 (a)
OneToMany
IKS1 33
Species where no ortholog for EIF2AK2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for EIF2AK2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for EIF2AK2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for EIF2AK2 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for EIF2AK2: view image

Paralogs for EIF2AK2 Gene

Paralogs for EIF2AK2 Gene

(4) SIMAP similar genes for EIF2AK2 Gene using alignment to 7 proteins:

  • E2AK2_HUMAN
  • B7ZKK7_HUMAN
  • C9JZT2_HUMAN
  • F8WBH4_HUMAN
  • Q05CP4_HUMAN
  • Q6PK38_HUMAN
  • Q8IW76_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with EIF2AK2: view

Variants for EIF2AK2 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for EIF2AK2 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 02 pos Variation AA Info Type
788395 Benign: not provided 37,126,321(-) A/G SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT,INTRON_VARIANT
804246 Uncertain Significance: EIF2AK2-related condition; LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY, AND EPISODIC NEUROLOGIC REGRESSION SYNDROME 37,147,776(-) T/G MISSENSE_VARIANT
804253 Uncertain Significance: EIF2AK2-related condition; LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY, AND EPISODIC NEUROLOGIC REGRESSION SYNDROME 37,139,749(-) T/A MISSENSE_VARIANT
813274 Uncertain Significance: Global developmental delay; Leukoencephalopathy; Developmental regression 37,141,616(-) G/A MISSENSE_VARIANT
813275 Uncertain Significance: Global developmental delay; Leukoencephalopathy; Developmental regression 37,141,652(-) G/A MISSENSE_VARIANT

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for EIF2AK2 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for EIF2AK2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2661177 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2719931 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3555110 CNV deletion 23714750
nsv1072934 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv477575 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878
nsv511779 CNV loss 21212237

Variation tolerance for EIF2AK2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 7.51% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.30; 6.67% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for EIF2AK2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
EIF2AK2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for EIF2AK2 Gene

Disorders for EIF2AK2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(23) MalaCards diseases for EIF2AK2 Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Additional Disease Information for EIF2AK2

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with EIF2AK2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for EIF2AK2 Gene

Publications for EIF2AK2 Gene

  1. An antiviral response directed by PKR phosphorylation of the RNA helicase A. (PMID: 19229320) Sadler AJ … Williams BR (PLoS pathogens 2009) 3 4 23
  2. PKR protein kinase is activated by hepatitis C virus and inhibits viral replication through translational control. (PMID: 19189853) Kang JI … Ahn BY (Virus research 2009) 3 4 23
  3. PKR activity is required for acute leukemic cell maintenance and growth: a role for PKR-mediated phosphatase activity to regulate GSK-3 phosphorylation. (PMID: 19507191) Blalock WL … Martelli AM (Journal of cellular physiology 2009) 3 4 23
  4. Interaction of human tRNA-dihydrouridine synthase-2 with interferon-induced protein kinase PKR. (PMID: 18096616) Mittelstadt M … Patel RC (Nucleic acids research 2008) 3 4 23
  5. Nck-1 interacts with PKR and modulates its activation by dsRNA. (PMID: 18835251) Cardin E … Larose L (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2008) 3 4 23

Products for EIF2AK2 Gene

Sources for EIF2AK2 Gene