This gene encodes a member of the class I family of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. These enzymes play a critical role in protein biosynthesis by charging tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. This protein is encoded by the nuclear genome but is likely to be imported to the mitochondrion where it is thought to catalyze the ligation of glutamate to tRNA molecules. Mutations in this ... See more...

Aliases for EARS2 Gene

Aliases for EARS2 Gene

  • Glutamyl-TRNA Synthetase 2, Mitochondrial 2 3 5
  • Probable Glutamate--TRNA Ligase, Mitochondrial 3 4
  • Glutamate TRNA Ligase 2, Mitochondrial 2 3
  • EC 6.1.1.17 4 52
  • GluRS 3 4
  • Glutamyl-TRNA Synthetase 2, Mitochondrial (Putative) 2
  • Probable Glutamyl-TRNA Synthetase, Mitochondrial 3
  • Glutamyl-TRNA Synthetase 4
  • Glutamate--TRNA Ligase 3
  • KIAA1970 4
  • COXPD12 3
  • MtGlnRS 3
  • MSE1 3

External Ids for EARS2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for EARS2 Gene

  • GC16M023440
  • GC16M023533
  • GC16M021624

Summaries for EARS2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for EARS2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the class I family of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. These enzymes play a critical role in protein biosynthesis by charging tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. This protein is encoded by the nuclear genome but is likely to be imported to the mitochondrion where it is thought to catalyze the ligation of glutamate to tRNA molecules. Mutations in this gene have been associated with combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 12 (COXPD12). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2015]

GeneCards Summary for EARS2 Gene

EARS2 (Glutamyl-TRNA Synthetase 2, Mitochondrial) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with EARS2 include Combined Oxidative Phosphorylation Deficiency 12 and Combined Oxidative Phosphorylation Deficiency. Among its related pathways are tRNA Aminoacylation and Gene Expression. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include nucleotide binding. An important paralog of this gene is EPRS1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for EARS2 Gene

  • Catalyzes the attachment of glutamate to tRNA(Glu) in a two-step reaction: glutamate is first activated by ATP to form Glu-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Glu).

Additional gene information for EARS2 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for EARS2 Gene

Genomics for EARS2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for EARS2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for EARS2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH16J023556 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 500.7 +0.0 30 3.4 EP300 FOXK2 ZBTB40 ZNF217 CTCF SIN3A TCF12 NRF1 MYC USF1 UBFD1 EARS2 HSALNG0110260 piR-51638 RBBP6 ENSG00000260751 GGA2 SCNN1B ENSG00000261723 NDUFAB1
GH16J023594 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 8.1 -38.3 -38280 3.6 ZBTB40 ZNF217 EP300 CTCF SIN3A NRF1 MYC TCF12 POLR2G SP1 NDUFAB1 hsa-miR-5095-189 DCTN5 EARS2 GGA2
GH16J023466 Enhancer 0.7 Ensembl ENCODE 7.5 +91.0 91033 1 FOS FOXA2 ZKSCAN1 POLR2A FOSL2 FOSL1 PKNOX1 TCF7L2 CREB1 FOXA1 lnc-COG7-1 UBFD1 EARS2 lnc-COG7-3 GGA2
GH16J023307 Promoter 0.3 EPDnew 4.7 +250.1 250147 0.1 SCNN1B EARS2 NONHSAG018886.2 lnc-SCNN1G-3
GH16J023536 Enhancer 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 0.4 +18.6 18599 5.1 EP300 FOXK2 ZNF217 TCF12 NCOR1 JUND FOS KDM6A TCF7 FOXA1 DCTN5 COG7 NDUFAB1 PALB2 GGA2 SUB1P4 lnc-UBFD1-2 piR-32214-249 lnc-GGA2-5 EARS2
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around EARS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for EARS2

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the EARS2 gene promoter:
  • E2F
  • E2F-1
  • E2F-2
  • E2F-3a
  • E2F-4
  • E2F-5
  • NF-1
  • p53
  • Pax-4a
  • PPAR-alpha

Genomic Locations for EARS2 Gene

Genomic Locations for EARS2 Gene
chr16:23,522,013-23,557,731
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
35,719 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr16:23,533,334-23,569,052
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
35,719 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for EARS2 Gene

Genes around EARS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
EARS2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for EARS2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for EARS2 Gene

Proteins for EARS2 Gene

  • Protein details for EARS2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q5JPH6-SYEM_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Probable glutamate--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Q5JPH6
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B3KTT2
    • D3DWF1
    • Q86YH3
    • Q8TF31

    Protein attributes for EARS2 Gene

    Size:
    523 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    58689 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for EARS2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for EARS2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for EARS2 Gene

Q5JPH6:
  • RFAPSPTG
  • KSDGFPTY
  • GGLRTAL
  • ENQMGRT
  • HLPLLLN
  • PSPTGFLH
  • LRLEDTD
  • DGSKLSKR
  • TPRYDNR
  • HSALLDLEKLPEFNR

Post-translational modifications for EARS2 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys480
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Domains & Families for EARS2 Gene

Gene Families for EARS2 Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Potential drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for EARS2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • EARS2 protein (Q86YH3_HUMAN)
  • Glutamate--tRNA ligase (SYEM_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q5JPH6

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

SYEM_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family. Glutamate--tRNA ligase type 1 subfamily.
Family:
  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family. Glutamate--tRNA ligase type 1 subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with EARS2: view

Function for EARS2 Gene

Molecular function for EARS2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the attachment of glutamate to tRNA(Glu) in a two-step reaction: glutamate is first activated by ATP to form Glu-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Glu).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=ATP + L-glutamate + tRNA(Glu) = AMP + diphosphate + L-glutamyl-tRNA(Glu); Xref=Rhea:RHEA:23540, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:9663, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:9680, ChEBI:CHEBI:29985, ChEBI:CHEBI:30616, ChEBI:CHEBI:33019, ChEBI:CHEBI:78442, ChEBI:CHEBI:78520, ChEBI:CHEBI:456215; EC=6.1.1.17;.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for EARS2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for EARS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000049 tRNA binding IEA --
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding IEA --
GO:0003723 RNA binding IEA --
GO:0004812 aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity IEA --
GO:0004818 glutamate-tRNA ligase activity IBA,IDA 19805282
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with EARS2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with EARS2: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for EARS2 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for EARS2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for EARS2:
  • Ears2 Ears2<tm1a(EUCOMM)Wtsi>

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for EARS2

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for EARS2

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for EARS2 Gene

Localization for EARS2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for EARS2 Gene

Mitochondrion matrix.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for EARS2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 3
plasma membrane 2
extracellular 2
cytoskeleton 2
cytosol 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Mitochondria (3)
  • Nucleoplasm (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for EARS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA,IDA 19805282
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with EARS2: view

Pathways & Interactions for EARS2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with EARS2: view

Pathways by source for EARS2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for EARS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006412 translation IEA --
GO:0006418 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation IEA --
GO:0006424 glutamyl-tRNA aminoacylation IBA,IDA 19805282
GO:0043039 tRNA aminoacylation IEA --
GO:0070127 tRNA aminoacylation for mitochondrial protein translation IDA 19805282
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with EARS2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for EARS2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for EARS2 Gene

(6) Drugs for EARS2 Gene - From: DrugBank and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Glutamic acid Approved Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Target 289
Famotidine Approved Pharma Histamine H2-receptor antagonist 73
gamma-Aminobutyric acid Approved, Investigational Pharma 27
Phosphoric acid Approved Pharma 0
Adenosine monophosphate Approved, Investigational Nutra 0

(1) Additional Compounds for EARS2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
pyrophosphate
  • [(ho)2P(O)OP(O)(OH)2]
  • Acide diphosphorique
  • Diphosphorsaeure
  • H4P2O7
  • PYROphosphATE
14000-31-8
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with EARS2: view

Transcripts for EARS2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for EARS2 Gene

2 REFSEQ mRNAs :
9 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
17 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for EARS2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for EARS2 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12
SP1:
SP2: - - -
SP3:
SP4: -

Relevant External Links for EARS2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
EARS2

Expression for EARS2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for EARS2 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for EARS2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone (37.5) and Salivary gland (7.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for EARS2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for EARS2 Gene

- Elite partner

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for EARS2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for EARS2 Gene:

Hs.620541

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for EARS2 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Kidney(4.4)
  • Liver(4.2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for EARS2 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • mesoderm
Systems:
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • skeletal muscle
Regions:
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cerebellum
  • cranial nerve
  • eye
  • eyelid
  • face
  • head
Limb:
  • lower limb
  • upper limb
General:
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • skin
  • spinal cord
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with EARS2: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for EARS2 Gene

Orthologs for EARS2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for EARS2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia EARS2 31 30
  • 99.04 (n)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia EARS2 31 30
  • 87.7 (n)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia EARS2 31 30
  • 86.62 (n)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ears2 17 31 30
  • 85.34 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ears2 30
  • 85.04 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 31
  • 76 (a)
OneToMany
-- 31
  • 69 (a)
OneToMany
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia EARS2 31
  • 68 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves EARS2 31 30
  • 69.45 (n)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia EARS2 31
  • 75 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ears2 30
  • 64.03 (n)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii zgc:153247 30
  • 62.26 (n)
CABZ01117079.1 31
  • 47 (a)
OneToOne
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP002570 30
  • 54.55 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG4573 31 30
  • 53.88 (n)
OneToOne
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea ears-2 31 30
  • 45.89 (n)
OneToOne
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AEL338C 30
  • 45.66 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0F07975g 30
  • 43.28 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes MSE1 31 30
  • 42.7 (n)
OneToOne
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons ERS 30
  • 44.84 (n)
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os02g0121000 30
  • 45.94 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes mse1 30
  • 43.54 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 31
  • 43 (a)
OneToOne
Species where no ortholog for EARS2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for EARS2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for EARS2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for EARS2 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for EARS2: view image

Paralogs for EARS2 Gene

Paralogs for EARS2 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for EARS2 Gene using alignment to 8 proteins:

  • SYEM_HUMAN
  • H3BPY3_HUMAN
  • H3BQI0_HUMAN
  • H3BQP8_HUMAN
  • H3BRF5_HUMAN
  • H3BTB7_HUMAN
  • I3L166_HUMAN
  • Q86YH3_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with EARS2: view

Variants for EARS2 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for EARS2 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 16 pos Variation AA Info Type
671552 Benign: not provided 23,529,477(-) C/T INTRON_VARIANT
671646 Benign: not provided 23,525,210(-) C/T MISSENSE_VARIANT,INTRON_VARIANT
676118 Benign: not provided 23,544,405(-) C/T INTRON_VARIANT
680557 Benign: not provided 23,532,974(-) G/A INTRON_VARIANT
680558 Benign: not provided 23,525,045(-) T/C THREE_PRIME_UTR_VARIANT,INTRON_VARIANT

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for EARS2 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for EARS2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv2826n100 CNV gain 25217958
esv990394 CNV deletion 20482838
nsv1123018 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1134510 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv475159 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878

Variation tolerance for EARS2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 79.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.96; 59.81% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for EARS2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
EARS2
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
EARS2

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for EARS2 Gene

Disorders for EARS2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(7) MalaCards diseases for EARS2 Gene - From: UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, DISEASES, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search EARS2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

SYEM_HUMAN
  • Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 12 (COXPD12) [MIM:614924]: An autosomal recessive, mitochondrial, neurologic disorder characterized by onset in infancy of hypotonia and delayed psychomotor development, or early developmental regression, associated with T2-weighted hyperintensities in the deep cerebral white matter, brainstem, and cerebellar white matter. Serum lactate is increased due to a defect in mitochondrial respiration. There are 2 main phenotypic groups: those with a milder disease course and some recovery of skills after age 2 years, and those with a severe disease course resulting in marked disability. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:22492562, ECO:0000269 PubMed:23008233, ECO:0000269 PubMed:26741492}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for EARS2

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with EARS2: view

No data available for Genatlas for EARS2 Gene

Publications for EARS2 Gene

  1. Leukoencephalopathy with thalamus and brainstem involvement and high lactate 'LTBL' caused by EARS2 mutations. (PMID: 22492562) Steenweg ME … Zeviani M (Brain : a journal of neurology 2012) 2 3 4 54
  2. Toward the full set of human mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases: characterization of AspRS and TyrRS. (PMID: 15779907) Bonnefond L … Sissler M (Biochemistry 2005) 2 3 4 54
  3. Multisystem fatal infantile disease caused by a novel homozygous EARS2 mutation. (PMID: 23008233) Talim B … Horvath R (Brain : a journal of neurology 2013) 3 4 54
  4. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PMID: 20877624) Hendrickson SL … O'Brien SJ (PloS one 2010) 3 41 54
  5. Biogenesis of glutaminyl-mt tRNAGln in human mitochondria. (PMID: 19805282) Nagao A … Suzuki T (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2009) 2 3 54

Products for EARS2 Gene

Sources for EARS2 Gene