Aliases for DUX4 Gene
External Ids for DUX4 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for DUX4 Gene
This gene is located within a D4Z4 repeat array in the subtelomeric region of chromosome 4q. The D4Z4 repeat is polymorphic in length; a similar D4Z4 repeat array has been identified on chromosome 10. Each D4Z4 repeat unit has an open reading frame (named DUX4) that encodes two homeoboxes; the repeat-array and ORF is conserved in other mammals. The encoded protein has been reported to function as a transcriptional activator of paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 1 (PITX1; GeneID 5307). Contraction of the macrosatellite repeat causes autosomal dominant facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]
GeneCards Summary for DUX4 Gene
DUX4 (Double Homeobox 4) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with DUX4 include Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy 1 and Muscular Dystrophy. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding. An important paralog of this gene is PAX7.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for DUX4 Gene
[Isoform 1]: Transcription factor that is selectively and transiently expressed in cleavage-stage embryos (PubMed:28459457). Binds to double-stranded DNA elements with the consensus sequence 5'-TAATCTAATCA-3' (PubMed:28459457, PubMed:28459454, PubMed:29572508, PubMed:30540931, PubMed:30315230). Binds to chromatin containing histone H3 acetylated at 'Lys-27' (H3K27ac) and promotes deacetylation of H3K27ac. In parallel, binds to chromatin that lacks histone H3 acetylation at 'Lys-27' (H3K27ac) and recruits EP300 and CREBBP to promote acetylation of histone H3 at 'Lys-27' at new sites (PubMed:26951377). Involved in transcriptional regulation of numerous genes, primarily as transcriptional activator, but mediates also repression of a set of target genes (PubMed:17984056, PubMed:27378237, PubMed:26951377, PubMed:28459457, PubMed:28459454, PubMed:29618456, PubMed:30540931, PubMed:29572508). Promotes expression of ZSCAN4 and KDM4E, two proteins with essential roles during early embryogenesis (PubMed:27378237, PubMed:26951377, PubMed:28459457, PubMed:29618456). Heterologous expression in cultured embryonic stem cells mediates also transcription of HERVL retrotransposons and transcripts derived from ACRO1 and HSATII satellite repeats (PubMed:28459457). May activate expression of PITX1 (PubMed:17984056). May regulate microRNA (miRNA) expression (PubMed:24145033). Inappropriate expression can inhibit myogenesis and promote apoptosis (PubMed:26951377, PubMed:28935672, PubMed:29618456).
[Isoform 2]: Probably inactive as a transcriptional activator, due to the absence of the C-terminal region that is important for transcriptional activation. Can inhibit transcriptional activation mediated by isoform 1. Heterologous expression of isoform 2 has no deleterious effect on cell survival.