This gene encodes a TBP- (TATA box-binding protein) associated phosphoprotein that represses both basal and activated levels of transcription. The encoded protein is phosphorylated in vivo and this phosphorylation affects its interaction with TBP. This protein contains a histone fold motif at the amino terminus, a TBP-binding domain, and a glutamine- and alanine-rich region. Th... See more...

Aliases for DR1 Gene

Aliases for DR1 Gene

  • Down-Regulator Of Transcription 1 2 3 4 5
  • TATA-Binding Protein-Associated Phosphoprotein 3 4
  • Negative Cofactor 2-Beta 3 4
  • Negative Cofactor 2 2 3
  • Protein Dr1 3 4
  • NC2-BETA 2 3
  • NC2B 2 3
  • NCB2 2 3
  • Down-Regulator Of Transcription 1, TBP-Binding (Negative Cofactor 2) 2
  • Negative Cofactor 2 Beta 2
  • NC2-Beta 4
  • NC2 3
  • DR1 5

External Ids for DR1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for DR1 Gene

  • GC01P094217
  • GC01P093017
  • GC01P093162
  • GC01P093283
  • GC01P093256
  • GC01P093523
  • GC01P093811
  • GC01P091933

Summaries for DR1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for DR1 Gene

  • This gene encodes a TBP- (TATA box-binding protein) associated phosphoprotein that represses both basal and activated levels of transcription. The encoded protein is phosphorylated in vivo and this phosphorylation affects its interaction with TBP. This protein contains a histone fold motif at the amino terminus, a TBP-binding domain, and a glutamine- and alanine-rich region. The binding of DR1 repressor complexes to TBP-promoter complexes may establish a mechanism in which an altered DNA conformation, together with the formation of higher order complexes, inhibits the assembly of the preinitiation complex and controls the rate of RNA polymerase II transcription. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for DR1 Gene

DR1 (Down-Regulator Of Transcription 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with DR1 include Oesophagostomiasis and Trichostrongylosis. Among its related pathways are Chromatin organization and Chromatin Regulation / Acetylation. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include sequence-specific DNA binding and transcription factor binding. An important paralog of this gene is NFYB.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for DR1 Gene

  • The association of the DR1/DRAP1 heterodimer with TBP results in a functional repression of both activated and basal transcription of class II genes. This interaction precludes the formation of a transcription-competent complex by inhibiting the association of TFIIA and/or TFIIB with TBP. Can bind to DNA on its own. Component of the ATAC complex, a complex with histone acetyltransferase activity on histones H3 and H4.

Gene Wiki entry for DR1 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for DR1 Gene

Genomics for DR1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for DR1 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH01J093344 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 600.7 +2.0 1986 6.6 SP1 HNRNPL GATAD2A PRDM10 REST ZNF629 TFE3 SIX5 LEF1 SOX13 CCDC18-AS1 DR1 TMED5 SNORA66 SNORD21 RPL5 MTF2 CCDC18 EVI5 FNBP1L
GH01J092831 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 31.5 -512.4 -512350 4.5 ARHGAP35 SP1 HNRNPL CREB1 GATAD2A CTCF ATF7 TEAD4 PRDM10 REST RPL5 SNORA66 MTF2 SNORD21 CCDC18-AS1 GLMN DR1 RPAP2 BTBD8 TGFBR3
GH01J093078 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 10.3 -265.4 -265409 4.6 ZNF221 BRCA1 SP1 HNRNPL CREB1 GATAD2A CTCF TEAD4 PRDM10 REST MTF2 NONHSAG002079.2 lnc-TMED5-6 CCDC18-AS1 GLMN SNORA66 RPAP2 ENSG00000260464 SNORD21 RPL5
GH01J093565 Enhancer 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 13.3 +221.0 221020 3 ZNF629 LEF1 IKZF1 JUND DDX20 MTA2 PKNOX1 MTA1 REST ZNF24 BCAR3 CCDC18-AS1 SNORA66 SNORD21 RPL5 DR1 BCAR3-AS1 piR-48348-001 FNBP1L
GH01J092803 Enhancer 1.1 FANTOM5 ENCODE 13.1 -540.9 -540850 3.1 PRDM10 ZNF629 RFX1 LEF1 IKZF1 RFX5 JUND FOXA1 DDX20 PRDM1 MTF2 CCDC18-AS1 SNORA66 SNORD21 GLMN RPAP2 DR1 EVI5 RPL5 piR-41306-012
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around DR1 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for DR1

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the DR1 gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • TBP
  • TFIID

Genomic Locations for DR1 Gene

Genomic Locations for DR1 Gene
chr1:93,345,907-93,369,493
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
23,587 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr1:93,811,445-93,835,055
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
23,611 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for DR1 Gene

Genes around DR1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
DR1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for DR1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for DR1 Gene

Proteins for DR1 Gene

  • Protein details for DR1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q01658-NC2B_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Protein Dr1
    Protein Accession:
    Q01658

    Protein attributes for DR1 Gene

    Size:
    176 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    19444 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heterodimer with DRAP1. DR1 exists in solution as a homotetramer that dissociates during interaction with TBP and then, after complexing with TBP, reassociates at a slow rate, to reconstitute the tetramer. Interacts with NFIL3. Component of the ADA2A-containing complex (ATAC), composed of KAT14, KAT2A, TADA2L, TADA3L, ZZ3, MBIP, WDR5, YEATS2, CCDC101 and DR1.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for DR1 Gene

neXtProt entry for DR1 Gene

Post-translational modifications for DR1 Gene

  • Phosphorylation regulates its interaction with TBP. Not phosphorylated when bound to DRAP1.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for DR1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Abcam antibodies for DR1
  • Boster Bio Antibodies for DR1

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for DR1 Gene

Domains & Families for DR1 Gene

Gene Families for DR1 Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for DR1 Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • CCAAT-binding transcription factor subunit A signature
  • Transcription factor CBF/NF-Y/archaeal histone
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for DR1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • TATA-binding protein-associated phosphoprotein (NC2B_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q01658

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

NC2B_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the NC2 beta/DR1 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the NC2 beta/DR1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with DR1: view

Function for DR1 Gene

Molecular function for DR1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
The association of the DR1/DRAP1 heterodimer with TBP results in a functional repression of both activated and basal transcription of class II genes. This interaction precludes the formation of a transcription-competent complex by inhibiting the association of TFIIA and/or TFIIB with TBP. Can bind to DNA on its own. Component of the ATAC complex, a complex with histone acetyltransferase activity on histones H3 and H4.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
TATA binding (TBP) protein-associated phosphoprotein,(19kDa),expressed in Hela cells,inhibitor of class II and III genes transcription

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for DR1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for DR1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000981 DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific ISM 19274049
GO:0001046 core promoter sequence-specific DNA binding IBA 21873635
GO:0001047 core promoter binding IBA --
GO:0003677 DNA binding TAS 8670811
GO:0003713 contributes_to transcription coactivator activity IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DR1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with DR1: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for DR1 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target DR1

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for DR1

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for DR1 Gene

Localization for DR1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DR1 Gene

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for DR1 gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 3
plasma membrane 2
extracellular 2
mitochondrion 2
peroxisome 2
cytoskeleton 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for DR1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA --
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA --
GO:0005671 Ada2/Gcn5/Ada3 transcription activator complex IBA,IDA 18838386
GO:0017054 negative cofactor 2 complex IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DR1: view

Pathways & Interactions for DR1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with DR1: view

Pathways by source for DR1 Gene

1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for DR1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for DR1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000122 negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II TAS,IBA 21873635
GO:0006338 chromatin remodeling IBA 21873635
GO:0043966 histone H3 acetylation IDA 18838386
GO:0045898 regulation of RNA polymerase II transcriptional preinitiation complex assembly IBA 21873635
GO:0045944 positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DR1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for DR1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for DR1 Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for DR1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for DR1 Gene

1 REFSEQ mRNAs :
10 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
3 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for DR1

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for DR1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for DR1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
DR1

Expression for DR1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for DR1 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for DR1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (10.6) and Tlymphocyte (6.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for DR1 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for DR1 Gene

- Elite partner

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for DR1

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for DR1 Gene:

Hs.348418

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for DR1 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.3)
  • Skin(3.3)
  • Kidney(2.7)
  • Blood(2.7)
  • Intestine(2.6)
  • Liver(2.6)
  • Heart(2.6)
  • Muscle(2.5)
  • Lung(2.3)
  • Spleen(2.3)
  • Stomach(2.3)
  • Bone marrow(2.2)
  • Lymph node(2.2)
  • Thyroid gland(2.2)
  • Pancreas(2.1)
  • Eye(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with DR1: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for DR1 Gene

Orthologs for DR1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for DR1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia DR1 30 31
  • 100 (n)
OneToOne
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia DR1 31
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia DR1 30 31
  • 94.89 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia DR1 30 31
  • 93.94 (n)
OneToOne
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Dr1 30 17 31
  • 93.18 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Dr1 30
  • 92.42 (n)
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia DR1 31
  • 92 (a)
OneToOne
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves DR1 30 31
  • 85.8 (n)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia DR1 31
  • 94 (a)
OneToOne
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia dr1 30
  • 83.72 (n)
Str.1586 30
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.32418 30
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii dr1 30 31
  • 79.81 (n)
OneToOne
Fruit Fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta NC2&bgr; 32
  • 70 (a)
NC2beta 30 31
  • 60.87 (n)
OneToOne
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP010322 30
  • 63.18 (n)
Worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea dro-1 30 31
  • 54.2 (n)
OneToOne
Baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes NCB2 30 31 33 33
  • 50.79 (n)
OneToOne
K. Lactis Yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0C06611g 30
  • 50.67 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Eremothecium gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AFR397C 30
  • 44.27 (n)
Thale Cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons NF-YB13 30
  • 58.13 (n)
Rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os08g0383700 30
  • 55.92 (n)
Sea Squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.4043 31
  • 61 (a)
OneToOne
Fission Yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes SPBC30D10.02 30
  • 56.37 (n)
Bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU02017 30
  • 51.61 (n)
Species where no ortholog for DR1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for DR1 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for DR1 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for DR1 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for DR1: view image

Paralogs for DR1 Gene

Paralogs for DR1 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for DR1 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

  • NC2B_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with DR1: view

Variants for DR1 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for DR1 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs3088371 - p.Glu171Asp

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for DR1 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for DR1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv950208 CNV duplication 24416366

Variation tolerance for DR1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 59.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.46; 28.52% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for DR1 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
DR1

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DR1 Gene

Disorders for DR1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(16) MalaCards diseases for DR1 Gene - From: DISEASES and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
oesophagostomiasis
  • infection by oesophagostomum
trichostrongylosis
  • infection by trichostrongylus
epidermolysis bullosa dystrophica
  • dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa
metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, schmid type
  • mcds
corneal dystrophy, subepithelial mucinous
  • smcd
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search DR1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for DR1

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with DR1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for DR1 Gene

Publications for DR1 Gene

  1. Dr1, a TATA-binding protein-associated phosphoprotein and inhibitor of class II gene transcription. (PMID: 1339312) Inostroza JA … Reinberg D (Cell 1992) 2 3 4 23
  2. Crystal structure of negative cofactor 2 recognizing the TBP-DNA transcription complex. (PMID: 11461703) Kamada K … Burley SK (Cell 2001) 3 4 23
  3. Protein-protein interaction between the transcriptional repressor E4BP4 and the TBP-binding protein Dr1. (PMID: 8836190) Cowell IG … Hurst HC (Nucleic acids research 1996) 3 4 23
  4. A mechanism for repression of class II gene transcription through specific binding of NC2 to TBP-promoter complexes via heterodimeric histone fold domains. (PMID: 8670811) Goppelt A … Meisterernst M (The EMBO journal 1996) 3 4 23
  5. Basal core promoters control the equilibrium between negative cofactor 2 and preinitiation complexes in human cells. (PMID: 20230619) Albert TK … Meisterernst M (Genome biology 2010) 3 23

Products for DR1 Gene

  • Signalway Proteins for DR1

Sources for DR1 Gene