Aliases for DHX9 Gene
External Ids for DHX9 Gene
Previous HGNC Symbols for DHX9 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for DHX9 Gene
This gene encodes a member of the DEAH-containing family of RNA helicases. The encoded protein is an enzyme that catalyzes the ATP-dependent unwinding of double-stranded RNA and DNA-RNA complexes. This protein localizes to both the nucleus and the cytoplasm and functions as a transcriptional regulator. This protein may also be involved in the expression and nuclear export of retroviral RNAs. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 11 and 13.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
GeneCards Summary for DHX9 Gene
DHX9 (DExH-Box Helicase 9) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with DHX9 include Werner Syndrome and Pseudopterygium. Among its related pathways are Cytosolic sensors of pathogen-associated DNA and Activated TLR4 signalling. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include nucleic acid binding and helicase activity. An important paralog of this gene is DHX36.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for DHX9 Gene
Multifunctional ATP-dependent nucleic acid helicase that unwinds DNA and RNA in a 3' to 5' direction and that plays important roles in many processes, such as DNA replication, transcriptional activation, post-transcriptional RNA regulation, mRNA translation and RNA-mediated gene silencing (PubMed:9111062, PubMed:11416126, PubMed:12711669, PubMed:15355351, PubMed:16680162, PubMed:17531811, PubMed:20669935, PubMed:21561811, PubMed:24049074, PubMed:25062910, PubMed:24990949, PubMed:28221134). Requires a 3'-single-stranded tail as entry site for acid nuclei unwinding activities as well as the binding and hydrolyzing of any of the four ribo- or deoxyribo-nucleotide triphosphates (NTPs) (PubMed:1537828). Unwinds numerous nucleic acid substrates such as double-stranded (ds) DNA and RNA, DNA:RNA hybrids, DNA and RNA forks composed of either partially complementary DNA duplexes or DNA:RNA hybrids, respectively, and also DNA and RNA displacement loops (D- and R-loops), triplex-helical DNA (H-DNA) structure and DNA and RNA-based G-quadruplexes (PubMed:20669935, PubMed:21561811, PubMed:24049074). Binds dsDNA, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), dsRNA, ssRNA and poly(A)-containing RNA (PubMed:9111062, PubMed:10198287). Binds also to circular dsDNA or dsRNA of either linear and/or circular forms and stimulates the relaxation of supercoiled DNAs catalyzed by topoisomerase TOP2A (PubMed:12711669). Plays a role in DNA replication at origins of replication and cell cycle progression (PubMed:24990949). Plays a role as a transcriptional coactivator acting as a bridging factor between polymerase II holoenzyme and transcription factors or cofactors, such as BRCA1, CREBBP, RELA and SMN1 (PubMed:11149922, PubMed:9323138, PubMed:9662397, PubMed:11038348, PubMed:11416126, PubMed:15355351, PubMed:28221134). Binds to the CDKN2A promoter (PubMed:11038348). Plays several roles in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression (PubMed:28221134, PubMed:28355180). In cooperation with NUP98, promotes pre-mRNA alternative splicing activities of a subset of genes (PubMed:11402034, PubMed:16680162, PubMed:28221134, PubMed:28355180). As component of a large PER complex, is involved in the negative regulation of 3' transcriptional termination of circadian target genes such as PER1 and NR1D1 and the control of the circadian rhythms (By similarity). Acts also as a nuclear resolvase that is able to bind and neutralize harmful massive secondary double-stranded RNA structures formed by inverted-repeat Alu retrotransposon elements that are inserted and transcribed as parts of genes during the process of gene transposition (PubMed:28355180). Involved in the positive regulation of nuclear export of constitutive transport element (CTE)-containing unspliced mRNA (PubMed:9162007, PubMed:10924507, PubMed:11402034). Component of the coding region determinant (CRD)-mediated complex that promotes cytoplasmic MYC mRNA stability (PubMed:19029303). Plays a role in mRNA translation (PubMed:28355180). Positively regulates translation of selected mRNAs through its binding to post-transcriptional control element (PCE) in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) (PubMed:16680162). Involved with LARP6 in the translation stimulation of type I collagen mRNAs for CO1A1 and CO1A2 through binding of a specific stem-loop structure in their 5'-UTRs (PubMed:22190748). Stimulates LIN28A-dependent mRNA translation probably by facilitating ribonucleoprotein remodeling during the process of translation (PubMed:21247876). Plays also a role as a small interfering (siRNA)-loading factor involved in the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) loading complex (RLC) assembly, and hence functions in the RISC-mediated gene silencing process (PubMed:17531811). Binds preferentially to short double-stranded RNA, such as those produced during rotavirus intestinal infection (PubMed:28636595). This interaction may mediate NLRP9 inflammasome activation and trigger inflammatory response, including IL18 release and pyroptosis (PubMed:28636595). Finally, mediates the attachment of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) to actin filaments in the nucleus (PubMed:11687588).
(Microbial infection) Plays a role in HIV-1 replication and virion infectivity (PubMed:11096080, PubMed:19229320, PubMed:25149208, PubMed:27107641). Enhances HIV-1 transcription by facilitating the binding of RNA polymerase II holoenzyme to the proviral DNA (PubMed:11096080, PubMed:25149208). Binds (via DRBM domain 2) to the HIV-1 TAR RNA and stimulates HIV-1 transcription of transactivation response element (TAR)-containing mRNAs (PubMed:9892698, PubMed:11096080). Involved also in HIV-1 mRNA splicing and transport (PubMed:25149208). Positively regulates HIV-1 gag mRNA translation, through its binding to post-transcriptional control element (PCE) in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) (PubMed:16680162). Binds (via DRBM domains) to a HIV-1 double-stranded RNA region of the primer binding site (PBS)-segment of the 5'-UTR, and hence stimulates DHX9 incorporation into virions and virion infectivity (PubMed:27107641). Plays also a role as a cytosolic viral MyD88-dependent DNA and RNA sensors in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), and hence induce antiviral innate immune responses (PubMed:20696886, PubMed:21957149). Binds (via the OB-fold region) to viral single-stranded DNA unmethylated C-phosphate-G (CpG) oligonucleotide (PubMed:20696886).