Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs), such as DHRS3, catalyze the oxidation/reduction of a wide range of substrates, including retinoids and steroids (Haeseleer and Palczewski, 2000 [PubMed 10800688]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009] See more...

Aliases for DHRS3 Gene

Aliases for DHRS3 Gene

  • Dehydrogenase/Reductase 3 2 3 5
  • SDR16C1 2 3 4
  • RetSDR1 2 3 4
  • RDH17 2 3 4
  • Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase Family 16C Member 1 3 4
  • Dehydrogenase/Reductase (SDR Family) Member 3 2 3
  • Retinal Short-Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase 1 3 4
  • Short-Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase 3 3 4
  • Retinol Dehydrogenase 17 3 4
  • DD83.1 3 4
  • Rsdr1 2 3
  • SDR1 2 3
  • Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase Family 16C, Member 1 2
  • Short-Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase 1 3
  • Dehydrogenase/Reductase Member 3 3
  • EC 4
  • EC 1.1.1 51
  • DHRS3 5

External Ids for DHRS3 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for DHRS3 Gene

  • GC01M012309
  • GC01M012562
  • GC01M012550
  • GC01M012627
  • GC01M011781

Summaries for DHRS3 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for DHRS3 Gene

  • Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs), such as DHRS3, catalyze the oxidation/reduction of a wide range of substrates, including retinoids and steroids (Haeseleer and Palczewski, 2000 [PubMed 10800688]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]

GeneCards Summary for DHRS3 Gene

DHRS3 (Dehydrogenase/Reductase 3) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with DHRS3 include Amphetamine Abuse and Lipoid Proteinosis Of Urbach And Wiethe. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Metabolism of fat-soluble vitamins. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include nucleotide binding and electron transfer activity. An important paralog of this gene is HSD17B11.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for DHRS3 Gene

  • Catalyzes the reduction of all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinol in the presence of NADPH.

Gene Wiki entry for DHRS3 Gene

Additional gene information for DHRS3 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for DHRS3 Gene

Genomics for DHRS3 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for DHRS3 Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around DHRS3 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for DHRS3

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the DHRS3 gene promoter:
  • Arnt
  • CREB
  • CUTL1
  • deltaCREB
  • GATA-1
  • HNF-4alpha1
  • HNF-4alpha2
  • MRF-2
  • Pax-4a
  • Sox9

Genomic Locations for DHRS3 Gene

Genomic Locations for DHRS3 Gene
50,301 bases
Minus strand
49,882 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for DHRS3 Gene

Genes around DHRS3 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
DHRS3 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for DHRS3 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for DHRS3 Gene

Proteins for DHRS3 Gene

  • Protein details for DHRS3 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase 3
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R7F3
    • Q5VUY3
    • Q6UY38
    • Q9BUC8

    Protein attributes for DHRS3 Gene

    302 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    33548 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=AAQ88460.1; Type=Frameshift; Evidence={ECO:0000305};
    • Located in a region of chromosome 1 which is often deleted in aggressive neuroblastoma tumors.

    Alternative splice isoforms for DHRS3 Gene


neXtProt entry for DHRS3 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for DHRS3 Gene


Post-translational modifications for DHRS3 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys32 and Lys156
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for DHRS3 Gene

Domains & Families for DHRS3 Gene

Gene Families for DHRS3 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for DHRS3 Gene

  • Short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase SDR
  • Glucose/ribitol dehydrogenase family signature

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for DHRS3 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Retinal short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase 1 (DHRS3_HUMAN)
  • Dehydrogenase/reductase member 3 (Q0QD44_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) family.
  • Belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with DHRS3: view

Function for DHRS3 Gene

Molecular function for DHRS3 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the reduction of all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinol in the presence of NADPH.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=all-trans-retinol + NADP(+) = all-trans-retinal + H(+) + NADPH; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:25033, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:17336, ChEBI:CHEBI:17898, ChEBI:CHEBI:57783, ChEBI:CHEBI:58349; EC=; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:9705317};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
By retinoic acid.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for DHRS3 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for DHRS3 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for DHRS3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding TAS 9705317
GO:0004745 retinol dehydrogenase activity IEA,IBA 21873635
GO:0009055 electron transfer activity TAS 9705317
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0016616 oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DHRS3: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with DHRS3: view

Animal Models for DHRS3 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for DHRS3:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for DHRS3

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for DHRS3

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for DHRS3 Gene

Localization for DHRS3 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DHRS3 Gene

Membrane. Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for DHRS3 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
endoplasmic reticulum 4
mitochondrion 3
nucleus 3
extracellular 2
cytoskeleton 1
peroxisome 1
cytosol 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Mitochondria (2)
  • Nucleoli (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for DHRS3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005789 endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS --
GO:0005811 lipid droplet IBA 21873635
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
GO:0042622 photoreceptor outer segment membrane TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DHRS3: view

Pathways & Interactions for DHRS3 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with DHRS3: view

Pathways by source for DHRS3 Gene

2 KEGG pathways for DHRS3 Gene
1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for DHRS3 Gene
  • Retinol metabolism

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for DHRS3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001523 retinoid metabolic process IBA,TAS --
GO:0003151 outflow tract morphogenesis IEA --
GO:0007601 visual perception TAS 9705317
GO:0022900 electron transport chain IEA --
GO:0030278 regulation of ossification IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DHRS3: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for DHRS3 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for DHRS3 Gene

(3) Drugs for DHRS3 Gene - From: DrugBank and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Vitamin A Approved, Vet_approved Nutra Target, substrate 685
NADP Experimental Pharma 0
NADPH Experimental Pharma 0

(1) Additional Compounds for DHRS3 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • (13cis)-Retinal
  • (2Z,4E,6E,8E)-3,7-Dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-en-1-yl)nona-2,4,6,8-tetraenal
  • 13-cis-Retinaldehyde
  • 13Z-Retinal
116-31-4, 564-87-4
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with DHRS3: view

Transcripts for DHRS3 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for DHRS3 Gene

13 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
4 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for DHRS3

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for DHRS3 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b
SP1: - - - -
SP2: -
SP3: - - - - - -
SP4: - -
SP5: - - -

Relevant External Links for DHRS3 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for

Expression for DHRS3 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for DHRS3 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for DHRS3 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x4.7).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for DHRS3 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Nasal epithelium (66.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for DHRS3 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for DHRS3 Gene

- Elite partner

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for DHRS3

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for DHRS3 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for DHRS3 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Widely expressed with highest levels found in heart, placenta, lung, liver, kidney, pancreas, thyroid, testis, stomach, trachea and spinal cord. Lower levels found in skeletal muscle, intestine and lymph node. No expression detected in brain. In the retina, expressed in cone but not rod outer segments.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for DHRS3 Gene

  • Liver(4.6)
  • Intestine(4.5)
  • Eye(4.5)
  • Lung(2.7)
  • Nervous system(2.7)
  • Kidney(2.4)
  • Heart(2.3)
  • Muscle(2.3)
  • Thyroid gland(2.3)
  • Skin(2.2)
  • Pancreas(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with DHRS3: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for DHRS3 Gene

Orthologs for DHRS3 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for DHRS3 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia DHRS3 30 31
  • 99.78 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia DHRS3 30 31
  • 94.04 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia DHRS3 31
  • 93 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia DHRS3 30 31
  • 92.83 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Dhrs3 30
  • 88.74 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Dhrs3 30 17 31
  • 88.19 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia DHRS3 31
  • 84 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves DHRS3 30 31
  • 80.57 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia DHRS3 31
  • 85 (a)
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia dhrs3 30
  • 74.17 (n)
Str.2573 30
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.13360 30
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii dhrs3a 31
  • 77 (a)
dhrs3b 30 31
  • 74.61 (n)
wufc04h12 30
Rainbow Trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.5264 30
Fruit Fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG15629 31
  • 31 (a)
CG14946 31
  • 28 (a)
CG2254 31
  • 27 (a)
CG9265 31
  • 24 (a)
CG13833 31
  • 24 (a)
CG17121 31
  • 22 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea dhs-29 31
  • 18 (a)
Baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes -- 31
  • 21 (a)
TDA5 31
  • 20 (a)
Species where no ortholog for DHRS3 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for DHRS3 Gene

Gene Tree for DHRS3 (if available)
Gene Tree for DHRS3 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for DHRS3: view image

Paralogs for DHRS3 Gene

(5) SIMAP similar genes for DHRS3 Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

  • Q0QD44_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with DHRS3: view

Variants for DHRS3 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for DHRS3 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
770028 Benign: not provided 12,578,936(-) C/T SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT
rs1128251 - p.Val2Ala

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for DHRS3 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for DHRS3 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1011540 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1126179 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv466172 CNV loss 19166990
nsv466283 CNV gain 19166990
nsv475134 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878
nsv475178 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878
nsv517848 CNV gain 19592680
nsv521737 CNV loss 19592680
nsv545442 CNV loss 21841781
nsv545443 CNV gain 21841781
nsv955253 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for DHRS3 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 82.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.12; 51.29% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for DHRS3 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DHRS3 Gene

Disorders for DHRS3 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(5) MalaCards diseases for DHRS3 Gene - From: DISEASES and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
amphetamine abuse
lipoid proteinosis of urbach and wiethe
  • lipoid proteinosis
  • nb
fundus albipunctatus
  • fa
fundus dystrophy
  • retinal dystrophy
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search DHRS3 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for DHRS3

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with DHRS3: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for DHRS3 Gene

Publications for DHRS3 Gene

  1. Molecular characterization of a novel short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase that reduces all-trans-retinal. (PMID: 9705317) Haeseleer F … Palczewski K (The Journal of biological chemistry 1998) 2 3 4 23
  2. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PMID: 20379614) Rose JE … Uhl GR (Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.) 2010) 3 41
  3. The SDR (short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase and related enzymes) nomenclature initiative. (PMID: 19027726) Persson B … Oppermann U (Chemico-biological interactions 2009) 2 3
  4. The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. (PMID: 16710414) Gregory SG … Prigmore E (Nature 2006) 3 4
  5. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4

Products for DHRS3 Gene

  • Signalway Proteins for DHRS3

Sources for DHRS3 Gene