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Aliases for DHFR2 Gene

Aliases for DHFR2 Gene

  • Dihydrofolate Reductase 2 2 3 5
  • Dihydrofolate Reductase, Mitochondrial 3 4
  • Dihydrofolate Reductase-Like Protein 1 3 4
  • Dihydrofolate Reductase Pseudogene 4 2 3
  • Dihydrofolate Reductase Like 1 2 3
  • DHFRL1 3 4
  • DHFRP4 3 4
  • Dihydrofolate Reductase 2, Mitochondrial 3
  • Dihydrofolate Reductase-Like 1 2
  • EC 1.5.1.3 4

External Ids for DHFR2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for DHFR2 Gene

  • DHFRP4
  • DHFRL1

Summaries for DHFR2 Gene

GeneCards Summary for DHFR2 Gene

DHFR2 (Dihydrofolate Reductase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Folate biosynthesis and Metabolism. An important paralog of this gene is DHFR.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DHFR2 Gene

  • Key enzyme in folate metabolism. Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway. Required to prevent uracil accumulation in mtDNA. Binds its own mRNA and that of DHFR.

Additional gene information for DHFR2 Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for DHFR2 Gene

Genomics for DHFR2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for DHFR2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for DHFR2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH03J094061 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 654.3 +0.0 41 2.9 HDGF CLOCK SMAD1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 POLR2B E2F8 ZNF143 STX19 DHFR2 NSUN3
GH03J093979 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 10.7 +82.7 82725 2.5 HDGF PKNOX1 ATF1 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 BRCA1 ZNF48 ARL13B RBBP4P2 NSUN3 WDR82P1 DHFR2 GC03M093988
GH03J094004 Enhancer 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE 11.5 +58.9 58894 0.6 CTCF IRF2 KMT2B IRF4 RAD21 RFX5 YY1 TEAD3 ZNF143 SMC3 NSUN3 DHFR2 HMGN1P7 ARL13B STX19
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around DHFR2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Locations for DHFR2 Gene

Genomic Locations for DHFR2 Gene
chr3:94,047,836-94,063,389
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
15,554 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr3:93,766,680-93,782,233
(GRCh37/hg19)

Genomic View for DHFR2 Gene

Genes around DHFR2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
DHFR2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for DHFR2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for DHFR2 Gene

Proteins for DHFR2 Gene

  • Protein details for DHFR2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q86XF0-DYR2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Dihydrofolate reductase 2, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Q86XF0
    Secondary Accessions:
    • D3DN30
    • Q6P4I9

    Protein attributes for DHFR2 Gene

    Size:
    187 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    21620 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    Miscellaneous:
    • Humans have acquired two dihydrofolate reductase enzymes during their evolution, DHFR and DHFR2. In contrast to human, mice and brown rats have just one.

neXtProt entry for DHFR2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for DHFR2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for DHFR2 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for DHFR2 Gene

Domains & Families for DHFR2 Gene

Gene Families for DHFR2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for DHFR2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for DHFR2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q86XF0

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

DYR2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the dihydrofolate reductase family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the dihydrofolate reductase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with DHFR2: view

Function for DHFR2 Gene

Molecular function for DHFR2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Key enzyme in folate metabolism. Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway. Required to prevent uracil accumulation in mtDNA. Binds its own mRNA and that of DHFR.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate + NADP(+) = 7,8-dihydrofolate + NADPH.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=209 uM for dihydrofolate {ECO:0000269 PubMed:21876184}; KM=20 uM for NADPH {ECO:0000269 PubMed:21876184};

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for DHFR2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for DHFR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003729 mRNA binding IDA 21876184
GO:0004146 dihydrofolate reductase activity IMP 21876188
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0050661 NADP binding IBA,IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DHFR2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with DHFR2: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for DHFR2

Clone Products

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for DHFR2 Gene

Localization for DHFR2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DHFR2 Gene

Mitochondrion. Mitochondrion matrix. Mitochondrion inner membrane.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for DHFR2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
extracellular 1
nucleus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for DHFR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA,IDA 21876184
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane IMP 21876188
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix IMP 21876188
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DHFR2: view

Pathways & Interactions for DHFR2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with DHFR2: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q86XF0-DYR2_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Cofactor biosynthesis; tetrahydrofolate biosynthesis; 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate from 7,8-dihydrofolate: step 1/1.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for DHFR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006545 glycine biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0006730 one-carbon metabolic process IEA --
GO:0046105 thymidine biosynthetic process IDA 21876188
GO:0046452 dihydrofolate metabolic process IBA --
GO:0046653 tetrahydrofolate metabolic process IDA 21876184
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DHFR2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for DHFR2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for DHFR2 Gene

(16) Drugs for DHFR2 Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Methotrexate Approved Pharma Folate antagonist,inhibits DFHR 1603
Pralatrexate Approved, Investigational Pharma Antifolate,a folate analog, RFC-1 targeted DHFR inhibitor 0
Folic Acid Approved, Vet_approved Nutra 4610
NADH Approved Nutra 0
5-(4-Methoxyphenoxy)-2,4-Quinazolinediamine Experimental Pharma Target 0

(3) Additional Compounds for DHFR2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Hydrogen Ion
  • H+
  • H(+)
  • Hydrogen cation
  • Hydron
  • Proton
NADP
  • beta-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
  • NADP+
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
  • Oxidized nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate
  • TPN
53-59-8
nadph
  • 2'-(Dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-b-D-ribofuranosylnicotinamide
  • 2'-(Dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosylnicotinamide
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) p'-5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) p'-5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide
  • b-NADPH
53-57-6

(2) ApexBio Compounds for DHFR2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Methotrexate Folate antagonist,inhibits DFHR 1959-05-2
Pralatrexate Antifolate,a folate analog 146464-95-1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with DHFR2: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for DHFR2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for DHFR2 Gene

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for DHFR2

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for DHFR2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for DHFR2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
DHFR2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
DHFR2

Expression for DHFR2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of DHFR2 Gene:

DHFR2

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for DHFR2 Gene:

Q86XF0-DYR2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in numerous cell lines.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for DHFR2 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.4)
  • Muscle(4.2)

No data available for mRNA expression in normal human tissues , mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for DHFR2 Gene

Orthologs for DHFR2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for DHFR2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia DHFRL1 34 33
  • 99.28 (n)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 88 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 34
  • 84 (a)
ManyToMany
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Dhfr 34
  • 87 (a)
OneToMany
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia DHFR 34
  • 83 (a)
OneToMany
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 78 (a)
OneToMany
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 60 (a)
OneToMany
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves DHFR 34
  • 68 (a)
OneToMany
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 71 (a)
OneToMany
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii dhfr 34
  • 57 (a)
OneToMany
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.8788 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Dhfr 34
  • 46 (a)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea dhfr-1 34
  • 32 (a)
OneToMany
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes DFR1 34
  • 29 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for DHFR2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for DHFR2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for DHFR2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for DHFR2 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for DHFR2: view image

Paralogs for DHFR2 Gene

Paralogs for DHFR2 Gene

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for DHFR2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with DHFR2: view

Variants for DHFR2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for DHFR2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000038209 -- 94,065,212(-) C/T upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000070825 -- 94,064,771(-) C/A/T upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000535919 -- 94,063,407(-) C/T 5_prime_UTR_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001042793 -- 94,063,680(-) C/T upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001075510 -- 94,063,396(-) C/T 5_prime_UTR_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant, upstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for DHFR2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3893746 CNV loss 25118596
nsv590987 CNV loss 21841781
nsv963340 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for DHFR2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 53.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 6.35; 76.80% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for DHFR2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
DHFR2

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DHFR2 Gene

Disorders for DHFR2 Gene

No disorders were found for DHFR2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for DHFR2 Gene

Publications for DHFR2 Gene

  1. An active second dihydrofolate reductase enzyme is not a feature of rat and mouse, but they do have activity in their mitochondria. (PMID: 25980602) Hughes L … Parle-McDermott A (FEBS letters 2015) 2 3 4 58
  2. The former annotated human pseudogene dihydrofolate reductase-like 1 (DHFRL1) is expressed and functional. (PMID: 21876184) McEntee G … Parle-McDermott A (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2011) 2 3 4 58
  3. Identification of a de novo thymidylate biosynthesis pathway in mammalian mitochondria. (PMID: 21876188) Anderson DD … Stover PJ (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2011) 3 4 58
  4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 58
  5. Architecture of the human interactome defines protein communities and disease networks. (PMID: 28514442) Huttlin EL … Harper JW (Nature 2017) 3 58

Products for DHFR2 Gene

Sources for DHFR2 Gene

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