Aliases for DDX3X Gene
External Ids for DDX3X Gene
Previous HGNC Symbols for DDX3X Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for DDX3X Gene
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the large DEAD-box protein family, that is defined by the presence of the conserved Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD) motif, and has ATP-dependent RNA helicase activity. This protein has been reported to display a high level of RNA-independent ATPase activity, and unlike most DEAD-box helicases, the ATPase activity is thought to be stimulated by both RNA and DNA. This protein has multiple conserved domains and is thought to play roles in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. Nuclear roles include transcriptional regulation, mRNP assembly, pre-mRNA splicing, and mRNA export. In the cytoplasm, this protein is thought to be involved in translation, cellular signaling, and viral replication. Misregulation of this gene has been implicated in tumorigenesis. This gene has a paralog located in the nonrecombining region of the Y chromosome. Pseudogenes sharing similarity to both this gene and the DDX3Y paralog are found on chromosome 4 and the X chromosome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]
GeneCards Summary for DDX3X Gene
DDX3X (DEAD-Box Helicase 3 X-Linked) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with DDX3X include Mental Retardation, X-Linked 102 and Corpus Callosum, Agenesis Of, With Facial Anomalies And Robin Sequence. Among its related pathways are RIG-I/MDA5 mediated induction of IFN-alpha/beta pathways and Translational Control. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include nucleic acid binding and RNA binding. An important paralog of this gene is DDX3Y.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DDX3X Gene
Multifunctional ATP-dependent RNA helicase. The ATPase activity can be stimulated by various ribo- and deoxynucleic acids indicative for a relaxed substrate specificity. In vitro can unwind partially double-stranded DNA with a preference for 5-single-stranded DNA overhangs. Is involved in several steps of gene expression, such as transcription, mRNA maturation, mRNA export and translation. However, the exact mechanisms are not known and some functions may be specific for a subset of mRNAs. Involved in transcriptional regulation. Can enhance transcription from the CDKN1A/WAF1 promoter in a SP1-dependent manner. Found associated with the E-cadherin promoter and can down-regulate transcription from the promoter. Involved in regulation of translation initiation. Proposed to be involved in positive regulation of translation such as of cyclin E1/CCNE1 mRNA and specifically of mRNAs containing complex secondary structures in their 5UTRs; these functions seem to require RNA helicase activity. Specifically promotes translation of a subset of viral and cellular mRNAs carrying a 5proximal stem-loop structure in their 5UTRs and cooperates with the eIF4F complex. Proposed to act prior to 43S ribosomal scanning and to locally destabilize these RNA structures to allow recognition of the mRNA cap or loading onto the 40S subunit. After association with 40S ribosomal subunits seems to be involved in the functional assembly of 80S ribosomes; the function seems to cover translation of mRNAs with structured and non-structured 5UTRs and is independent of RNA helicase activity. Also proposed to inhibit cap-dependent translation by competetive interaction with EIF4E which can block the EIF4E:EIF4G complex formation. Proposed to be involved in stress response and stress granule assembly; the function is independent of RNA helicase activity and seems to involve association with EIF4E. May be involved in nuclear export of specific mRNAs but not in bulk mRNA export via interactions with XPO1 and NXF1. Also associates with polyadenylated mRNAs independently of NXF1. Associates with spliced mRNAs in an exon junction complex (EJC)-dependent manner and seems not to be directly involved in splicing. May be involved in nuclear mRNA export by association with DDX5 and regulating its nuclear location. Involved in innate immune signaling promoting the production of type I interferon (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta); proposed to act as viral RNA sensor, signaling intermediate and transcriptional coactivator. Involved in TBK1 and IKBKE-dependent IRF3 activation leading to IFNB induction, plays a role of scaffolding adapter that links IKBKE and IRF3 and coordinates their activation. Also found associated with IFNB promoters; the function is independent of IRF3. Can bind to viral RNAs and via association with MAVS/IPS1 and DDX58/RIG-I is thought to induce signaling in early stages of infection. Involved in regulation of apoptosis. May be required for activation of the intrinsic but inhibit activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Acts as an antiapoptotic protein through association with GSK3A/B and BIRC2 in an apoptosis antagonizing signaling complex; activation of death receptors promotes caspase-dependent cleavage of BIRC2 and DDX3X and relieves the inhibition. May be involved in mitotic chromosome segregation. Is an allosteric activator of CSNK1E, it stimulates CSNK1E-mediated phosphorylation of DVL2 and is involved in the positive regulation of canonical Wnt signaling (PubMed:23413191).
(Microbial infection) Appears to be a prime target for viral manipulations. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase and possibly vaccinia virus (VACV) protein K7 inhibit IFNB induction probably by dissociating DDX3X from TBK1 or IKBKE. Is involved in hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication; the function may involve the association with HCV core protein. HCV core protein inhibits the IPS1-dependent function in viral RNA sensing and may switch the function from a INFB inducing to a HCV replication mode. Involved in HIV-1 replication. Acts as a cofactor for XPO1-mediated nuclear export of incompletely spliced HIV-1 Rev RNAs.